Main Article Content
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common
functional gastrointestinal disorder. Increasing prevalences have
been reported in Asian adolescent populations, however, there
have been few reports on Indonesian adolescents.
Objective To investigate the prevalence of IBS and associated
factors among adolescents in Jakarta.
Methods This cross-sectional study included senior high school
students in a district of Jakarta. Students were asked to fill
questionnaires based on the Rome III criteria for IBS. They were
then divided into groups: those with IBS and those without IBS,
for the purposes of comparison.
Results Out of 232 adolescents (145 females and 87 males) with
mean age of 16.06 (SD 0.91) years, 14 (6.0%) had IBS. Eleven
out of 14 adolescents with IBS reported upper abdominal pain
as well as periumbilical/lower abdominal pain. Irritable bowel
syndrome was not associated with socioeconomic status, food and
drink habits, the use of antibiotics, or scolding as a parental form
of discipline. However, a significant higher proportion in the use
of corporal punishment was found in IBS adolescents compared
to the non-IBS (P=0.034). In addition, stress related to scolding,
as a parental form of discipline was more likely to be found in the
IBS group than in the non-IBS group (P=0.019).
Conclusion The prevalence of IBS among adolescents in Jakarta
is 6%, which is lower compared to those of other Asian countries.
Corporal punishment at home and stress related to scolding at
home are found to be associated with IBS.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
2. Ford AC, Vandvik PO. Irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Evid (Online). 2010;2010.
3. Park H, Lim S. Frequency of irritable bowel syndrome, entrance examination-related stress, mental health, and quality of life in high school students. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2011;34:450-8.
4. Longstreth GF, Drossman DA. New developments in the diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002;4:427-34.
5. Drossman DA, Li Z, Andruzzi E, Temple RD, Talley NJ, Thompson WG, et al. U.S. householder survey of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Prevalence, sociodemography, and health impact. Dig Dis Sci. 1993;38:1569-80.
6. Danivat D, Tankeyoon M, Sriratanaban A. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in a non-Western population. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988;296:1710.
7. Gwee KA, Bak YT, Ghoshal UC, Gonlachanvit S, Lee OY, Fock KM, et al. Asian consensus on irritable bowel syndrome. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:1189-205.
8. Ho KY, Kang JY, Seow A. Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in a multiracial Asian population, with particular reference to reflux-type symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:1816-22.
9. Son YJ, Jun EY, Park JH. Prevalence and risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome in Korean adolescent girls: a school-based study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46:76-84.
10. Zheng S, Fu W, Zhou J, Dong X, Liu Z, Wang Y, et al. Prevalence and related factors of irritable bowel syndrome among middle-school students in areas affected by Wenchuan Earthquake: an epidemiological study. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012;46:345-6.
11. Gwee KA, Leong YL, Graham C, McKendrick MW, Collins SM, Walters SJ, et al. The role of psychological and biological factors in postinfective gut dysfunction. Gut. 1999;44:400-6.
12. Spiller R, Garsed K. Infection, inflammation, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Liver Dis. 2009;41:844-9.
13. Rasquin A, Di Lorenzo C, Forbes D, Guiraldes E, Hyams JS, Staiano A, et al. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: child/adolescent. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1527-37.
14. Dong L, Dingguo L, Xiaoxing X, Hanming L. An epidemiologic study of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents and children in China: a school-based study. Pediatrics. 2005;116:e393-6.
15. Bytzer P, Howell S, Leemon M, Young LJ, Jones MP, Talley NJ. Low socioeconomic class is a risk factor for upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms: a population based study in 15 000 Australian adults. Gut. 2001;49:66-72.
16. Kang JY. Systematic review: the influence of geography and ethnicity in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21:663-76.
17. Zhou H, Yao M, Cheng GY, Chen YP, Li DG. Prevalence and associated factors of functional gastrointestinal disorders and bowel habits in Chinese adolescents: a school-based study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;53:168-73.
18. Spiller R, Garsed K. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1979-88.
19. Shiotani A, Miyanishi T, Takahashi T. Sex differences in irritable bowel syndrome in Japanese university students. J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:562-8.
20. Stermer E, Lubezky A, Potasman I, Paster E, Lavy A. Is traveler’s diarrhea a significant risk factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome? A prospective study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:898-901.
21. Tan YM, Goh KL, Muhidayah R, Ooi CL, Salem O. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in young adult Malaysians: a survey among medical students. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;18:1412-6.
22. Thompson WG, Heaton KW, Smyth GT, Smyth C. Irritable bowel syndrome in general practice: prevalence, characteristics, and referral. Gut. 2000;46:78-82.
23. Mendall MA, Kumar D. Antibiotic use, childhood affluence, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998;10:59-62.
24. Widayati A, Suryawati S, de Crespigny C, Hiller JE. Self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia: a cross sectional population-based survey. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:491.
25. Nanda R, James R, Smith H, Dudley CR, Jewell DP. Food intolerance and the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 1989;30:1099-104.
26. Wallon C, Yang PC, Keita AV, Ericson AC, McKay DM, Sherman PM, et al. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates macromolecular permeability via mast cells in normal human colonic biopsies in vitro. Gut. 2008;57:50-8.