Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

Luh Putu Rihayani Budi, Mei Neni Sitaresmi, I Gusti Ayu Trisna Windiani


Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders
(ASDs) has increased 10 times over the past half century,
while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has also
increased. Studies looking for an association between paternal
or maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have not
been conclusive.
Objective To assess for possible associations between paternal
and maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring.
Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100
control subjects, each case was matched for age and gender
to two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutive
sampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited the
Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics Outpatient
Clinic and private growth and development centers from January
to April 2013, while control group were children of the same
age range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatient
clinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tract
infection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria.
We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternal
and paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, history
of asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period,
pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternal
smoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed with
Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.
Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal age
at pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3;
95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001). However, there was no significant
association between maternal age during pregnancy and the
incidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were also
associated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR
10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9;
P 0.003, respectively).
in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased 

the risk of ASDs in offspring by 3.2 times and asphyxia increased
the risk of ASDs in offspring by 10.3 times.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Editorial Information: 
Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia
Jl. Salemba I No 5, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia 
Phone/Fax: +62-21-3912577
Email: enquiry [at] with subject: editorial information.

Creative Commons License
Paediatrica Indonesiana by Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.