Perinatal factors associated with autistic spectrum disorder

Main Article Content

Asri Yuniastuti
Tunjung Wibowo
Djauhar Ismail


Background The prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder
(ASD) has increased in recent decades. The definitive causes
of ASD have yet to be recognized. Howevei; it is believed that
both genetic and non-genetic, as well as perinatal and post natal
factors influence ASD. Previous studies have shown inconsistent
Objectives To assess for prematurity, birth weight, asphyxia,
mode of delivery, bleeding during pregnancy, parental age and
education, as prognostic factors for ASD.
Methods We conducted a cross sectional study at schools for
autistic children in Yogyakarta between February 2011 to October
2012. The inclusion criteria were children with and without ASD,
whose parents consented to participate in this study. Children
with genetic abnormalities or who planned to move away during
the study period were excluded. A total of 48 subjects with ASD
and 96 subjects without ASD were involved in this study. Data
were obtained by direct interview using questionnaires. Logistic
regression analysis was performed to examine the hypoth esis.
Results Multivariate analysis showed that prematurity was not
a significant prognostic factor (RR 2.73; 95%CI 0.3 to 15.7) for
ASD. Howevei; children born by Caesarean section were 5.4 times
more likely to have ASD (RR 5.4; 95%CI 1.3 to 22.8) compared
to those who were delivered vaginally or by vacuum extraction.
Moreovet; asphyxia was also a significant prognostic factor for
ASD (RR 8.7; 95%CI 1.9 to 38.6) .
Conclusion Prematurity is not a risk factor for ASD. Asphyxia
and Caesarean birth should be considered as potential confounders
in this study.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yuniastuti A, Wibowo T, Ismail D. Perinatal factors associated with autistic spectrum disorder. PI [Internet]. 30Jun.2014 [cited 29Feb.2020];54(3):144-. Available from:
Received 2016-09-09
Accepted 2016-09-09
Published 2014-06-30


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