Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy

Main Article Content

Pertin Sianturi
Amir Sarifuddin
Bistok Saing


Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP) that can affect further brain damage especially if they are with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies between 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that this disorder has common or related origins. We carried out the retrospective study to determine incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered within July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy differed according to type of CP. Data were compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG results. Data were analyzed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0,05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47,8% male, 52,2% female and mean age 50,3 (SD 36,9) months. There were 25 (37,3%) patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasms. The incidence of epilepsy was significant different among patients with CP associated with type of CP and gestasional age, p < 0,05. We concluded that incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP in YPAC Medan was 37,3% and significantly different among patients with CP according to type CP and gestasional age.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sianturi P, Sarifuddin A, Saing B. Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy. PI [Internet]. 30Aug.2006 [cited 20Nov.2019];41(7-8):202-. Available from:
Received 2016-11-23
Accepted 2016-11-23
Published 2006-08-30


1. Nordli DR, Pedley TA, De Vivo DC. Seizure disorders in infants and children. In: Rudolph AM, Hoffman JI, Rudolph CD, editors. Rudolph’s Pediatrics. 20th ed. CaliforSianturi et al Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy 207 nia: Appleton & Lange, 1997. p. 1892-7.
2. Menkes JH, Sankar R. Paroxysmal disorders. In: Menkes JH, editor. Textbook of child neurology. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995. p. 725-30.
3. Aicardi J. Epilepsy in children. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press, 1994. p.1-17.
4. Procopis PG. Management of the brain-damaged child. J Pediatr Obstetr Gynecol 1982: 8: p37-p43.
5. Annegers JF. The epidemiology of epilepsy. In: Wyllie E, editor. The treatment of epilepsy: principles and practice. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1999. p. 165-72.
6. Wollack JB, Nichter CA. Static encephalopathies. In: Rudolph AM, Hoffman JI, Rudolph CD, editors. Rudolph’s pediatrics. 20th ed. California: Appleton & Lange, 1997. p. 1892-7.
7. Maudsley G, Hutton JL, Pharoah POD. Cause of death in cerebral palsy: a descriptive study. Arch. Dis. Child 1999; 81: 390-4.
8. Kuban K and Leviton A. Cerebral palsy. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 188-95.
9. Haslam RHA. Encephalopathies. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Arvin AM, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1996. p. 1713-4.
10. Evans P, Elliott M, Alberman E, Evans S. Prevalence and disability in 4 to 8 years old with cerebral palsy . Pediatrics 1985; 60: 940-5.
11. Sharma P, Sharma U, Kabra A. Cerebral palsy – clinical profile and predisposing factors. Indian Pediatrics 1999; 36: 1038-42.
12. Jarvis N, Holloway S, Hey N. Increase in cerebral palsy in normal birth weight babies. Arch Dis Child 1985; 60: 1113-21.
13. Evans P, Evans S, Alberman E. Cerebral palsy: why we must plan for survival. Arch Dis Child 1990; 65: 1329 –33.
14. Kaushik A, Argarval RP, Sadhna. Association of cerebral palsy with epilepsy. J Indian Med Assoc. 1997; 95:552-4
15. Delgado MR, Riela AR, Mills J, Pitt A, Browne R. Discontinuation of antiepileptic drug treatment after two seizure-free years in children with cerebral palsy. Pediatrics 1996; 97: 192-7
16. Gibbs FA, Gibbs EL, Perlstein MA, Rich CL. Electroencephalographic and clinical aspects of cerebral palsy. Pediatrics 1963; 32:73-84.
17. Winfield DL, Hughes JG, Sayle WE. Electroencephalography-sleep findings in cerebral palsy. Pediatrics 1955; 16:88-92.
18. Pharoah P, Platt MJ, Cooke T. The changing epidemiology of cerebral palsy. Arch Dis Child 1996; 75: F169-F173.
19. Stanley FJ, Watson L,. Trend in perinatal mortality and cerebral palsy in Western Australia, 1967 to 1985. BMJ 1992; 304: 1658-63.
20. Gurces C, Gross W, Anderman F, Bastos A, Dubeau F, Calay M, et al. Periventricular leukomalacia and epilepsy. Neurology 1999; 52:341.
21. Torfs CP, van den Berg. BJ, Oechsli FW, Cummins S. Prenatal and perinatal factors in the etiology of cerebral palsy. J Pediatr 1990; 116: 615-9.
22. Stanley FJ, Blair E. Intrapartum asphyxia: a rare cause of cerebral palsy. J Pediatr 1988; 112: 515-9.
23. Hadjipanayis A, Dadjichristodoulou C, Youroukos S. Epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997; 39: 659-63.
24. Cummins SK, Nelson KB, Grether JK, Velie EM. Cerebral palsy in four Northern California Countries birth 1983 through 1985. J Pediatr 1993; 123: 230-7.