Risk factors for malnutrition in under-five children: one year after the Yogyakarta earthquake

Main Article Content

Neti Nurani
Mei Neni Sitaresmi
Djauhar Ismail


Background Malnutrition in children under the age of five remains a major health problem, since half of mortality cases in this age group involve malnutrition. The 2006 earthquake caused destruction of physical, biological and socio-economic environments, potentially leading to malnutrition in Yogyakarta children.

Objective To identify the prevalence and risk factors of malnutrition in Yogyakarta children under five years of age, one year after the 2006 earthquake.

Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among children aged 0 to 60 months in the Bambanglipuro Subdistrict, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta from September to October 2007. Nutritional status was determined using weight for height Z-scores, according to the WHO 2006 Child Growth Standards.

Results Out of 666 subjects, we found severe malnutrition, undernutrition, normal weight, and overweight status in 1.7%, 4.8%, 88.6% and 4.8%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, risk factors for malnutrition were not having been weighed during the previous three months (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8) and having acute respiratory infection in the previous two weeks (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.8)

Conclusion One year following the 2006 earthquake, acute respiratory infection in the previous two weeks and unmonitored growth in the previous three months were risk factors for malnutrition in children under five years.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nurani N, Sitaresmi M, Ismail D. Risk factors for malnutrition in under-five children: one year after the Yogyakarta earthquake. PI [Internet]. 31Dec.2011 [cited 6Apr.2020];51(6):327-1. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/859
Received 2016-10-11
Accepted 2016-10-11
Published 2011-12-31


1. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The state of the world’s children. [cited on 2009]. Available from: http://www.unicef.org/sowc00/
2. De Onis M, Frongillo EA, Blossner M. Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in level of child malnutrition since 1980. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:1222-3.
3. De Onis M, Blossner M, Borghi E, Morris R, Frongillo EA. Methodology for estimating regional and global trends of child malnutrition. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33:1260-70.
4. M Muller O, Krawinkel M. Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ. 2005;173:279-86.
5. Smitt LC, Haddad L. Explaining child malnutrition in developing countries: A cross-country analysis. Research report. [cited on 2009]. Available from: http://www.ifpri.org/pubs
6. National socioeconomic survey 2005 (SUSENAS-2005). Central Bureau of Statistics. [cited on 2009] Available from: http://gizi.depkes.go.id/busung-lapar/lapgiziburuk
7. B Black R. Micronutrient deficiency–an underlying cause for morbidity and mortality. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:79.
8. Rice AL, Sacco L, Hyder A, Black RE. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:1207-21.
9. Caulfield LE, De Onis M, Blossner M, Black RE. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child death associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria and measles. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:193-8.
10. McGregor SG, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet. 2007;369:60-70.
11. Walker SP, Wachs T, Gardner JM, Lozoff B, Wasserman GA, Pollitt E, et al. Child development: risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries. Lancet. 2007;369:145-57.
12. Unicef. Fast facts on children [cited on 2008]. Available from: http://www.unicef.org/earlychildhood/9475.html
13. Arifeen SE, Black RERE, Caulfield LC, Antelman G, Baqui AH, Nahar Q, et al. Infant growth patterns in the slums of Dhaka in relation to birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, and prematurity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:1010-7.
14. Hadi H. Beban ganda masalah gizi dan implikasinya terhadap kebijakan pembangunan kesehatan nasional. Pidato pengukuhan guru besar pada Fakultas Kedokteran UGM. Yogyakarta 5 februari, 2005. p.4-5
15. Clinton C. The epidemiology of malnutrition in disasters. Nutrition Noteworthy: Vol. 2: Article 2. 1999; [cited 2009 May]. Available from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7799v282
16. WHO Regional office for Eastern Mediterranea. Field guide on Rapid nutritional assessment in emergency. 1995. p. 7-8
17. WHO. WHO child growth standards [cited on 2009]. Available from: http://www.who.int/childgrowthstandards/technical_report/en/index.html
18. National socioeconomic survey 2004 (SUSENAS-2004). Central Bureau of Statistics. [cited on 2009] Available from: http://gizi.depkes.go.id/busung-lapar/lapgiziburuk Tomkins A. Malnutrition, morbidity and mortality in children and their mothers. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000;59:135-46.
19. Atmarita. Nutrition problem in Indonesia. Proceedings of Integrated International Seminar and Workshop on Lifestyle–Related Diseases, Gadjah Mada University; 2005 March 19 – 20; Yogyakarta; 2005. p. 1-14.
20. Van de Poel E, Hosseinpoor AR, Jehu-Appiah C, Vega J, Speybroeck N. Malnutrition and dispropotional burden on the poor: The case of Ghana. Int J Equity Health. 2007;6:21.
21. Julia M, Surjono A, Hakimi M. Role of breastfeeding in protecting children from malnutrition: a comparative study of nutritional status in children under two years of age in two districts in Indonesia. Paediatr Indones. 2002;42:106-12.
22. Shrimpton R, Victora CG, de Onis M, Lima RC, Blosser M, Clugston G. Worldwide timing of growth faltering: implications for nutritional intervention. Pediatrics. 2001;107:75-82.