Characteristics and risk factors of snoring and the prevalence of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in children

  • Bambang Supriyatno
  • Rusmala Deviani
  • Alan R Tumbelaka
  • Evita KB Ifran
  • Nastiti N Rahajoe
Keywords: snoring, obstructive sleep apnea, risk factors, prevalence


Background Snoring as a consequence of upper airway obstruc-
tion is common in children. Snoring can be considered as normal,
but might also reflect a disease such as obstructive sleep apnea
(OSA), which is associated with serious morbidities. In Indonesia,
data on the characteristics and risk factors of snoring and obstruc-
tive sleep apnea is limited
Objectives The aims of this study were to find out the character-
istics and risk factors of snoring in children and to determine the
prevalence of suspected OSA in snoring children.
Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on children aged
5-13 years using parental questionnaires scored according to the
Brouilette formula. All children underwent physical examination for
weight, height and tonsil size. Adenoid radiology was performed
on part of the samples.
Results Of the 917 questionnaires distributed, only 658 were com-
pleted. The ratio of boys to girls was equal. Obesity was detected
in 18.3% of children, among whom 54.2% snored. Obese children
were 2.1 times more likely to snore. Besides obesity, rhinitis and
atopy were found to be associated with snoring (PR= , 95%CI ;
and PR= , 95%CI ; respectively). Asthma and tonsil hypertrophy
were shown not to be predisposing factors of snoring. Children
with adenoid hypertrophy were 1.8 times more likely to snore ha-
bitually. The prevalence of snoring and suspected OSA in children
aged 5-13 years were 31.6% and 5.9%, respectively.
Conclusion Risk factors of snoring were obesity, adenoid hyper-
trophy, atopy and rhinitis. Prevalence of snoring in children age 5-
13 years was 31.6% and that of suspected OSA cases was 5.9%.

Author Biographies

Bambang Supriyatno
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Rusmala Deviani
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Alan R Tumbelaka
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Evita KB Ifran
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Nastiti N Rahajoe
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.


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How to Cite
Supriyatno B, Deviani R, Tumbelaka A, Ifran E, Rahajoe N. Characteristics and risk factors of snoring and the prevalence of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in children. PI [Internet]. 10Oct.2016 [cited 30Mar.2023];45(1):40-. Available from:
Received 2016-10-05
Accepted 2016-10-05
Published 2016-10-10