Behavior and emotional problems in children with mental retardation

Main Article Content

Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko
Muzal Kadim
Bambang Madiyono
Mardjanis Said

Abstract

Background Behavior and emotional problems in a mentally re-
tarded child can inhibit the educational process of the child.
Objectives The aims of this study were to find out the prevalence
of behavior and emotional problems in children with mental retar-
dation as reported by parents and to assess associated risk fac-
tors consisting of mother’s psychopathology, marital discord, male
sex, child’s age, socioeconomic status, and family size.
Methods This cross sectional study was carried out on 63 chil-
dren with mental retardation in a school for retarded children, SLB
C Asih Budi I, from January until March 2003. Parents were inter-
viewed at school and home using special questionnaires, the Child
Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90).
Results The prevalence of behavior and emotional problems in
this study was 52%. The majority of behavior and emotional prob-
lems were anxious/depressed (18%) and withdrawn (16%). Male
sex and age group of 12-18 year-old were not risk factors of be-
havior and emotional problems (OR=0.49, p=0.190 and OR=1.14,
p=0.94, respectively) while socioeconomic status, family size, and
mother’s psychopathology were risk factors (OR= 4.08, p=0.008;
OR=4.17, p=0.014; OR=9.28, p=0.018; respectively). There was
a correlation between behavior and emotional problems of chil-
dren and marital discord.
Conclusion The prevalence of behavior and emotional problems
was 52% in which the majority was internalizing disorder. Risk fac-
tors for behavior and emotional problems were mother’s psycho-
pathology, four or more children in the family, low socioeconomic
status, and marital discord

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Soedjatmiko S, Kadim M, Madiyono B, Said M. Behavior and emotional problems in children with mental retardation. PI [Internet]. 10Oct.2016 [cited 7Mar.2021];44(3):90-. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/742
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko

Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta

Muzal Kadim

Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta

Bambang Madiyono

Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta

Mardjanis Said

Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta
Received 2016-09-29
Accepted 2016-09-29
Published 2016-10-10

References

1. WHO. Primary prevention of mental neurological and
psychosocial disorders. Geneva: WHO; 1998. p. 8-53.
2. Sularyo TS. Tumbuh kembang anak dengan minat
khusus pada aspek pencegahan tuna grahita. Presented
at one day seminar of Jangan Sampai Anakku Tuna
Grahita; 1992 Nov 21; Jakarta, Indonesia.
3. Prasadio T. Gangguan psikiatrik pada anak-anak
dengan retardasi mental [dissertation]. Surabaya:
Airlangga University; 1976.
4. Hall DM, Hill PD. The child with dissability. 2 nd ed.
Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1996. p. 1-66.
5. Smith MB, Ittenbach RF, Patton JR. Mental retarda-
tion. 6 th ed. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall; 2002. p.
4-148.
6. Philips I, Williams N. Psychopathology and mental re-
tardation: a statistical study of 100 mentally retarded
children treated at a psychiatric clinic: II. Hyperactiv-
ity. Am J Psychiatry 1977;134:418-9.
7. Hauser MJ. The role of psychiatrist in mental retarda-
tion. Psychiatric Annals 1997;27:170-4.
8. Kim SH, Ittenbach RF. Psychosocial aspects of mental
retardation. In: Smith MB, Ittenbach RF, Patton JR,
editors. Mental retardation. 6 th ed. New Jersey: Merrill
Prentice Hall; 2002. p. 198-233.
9. Rae-Grant N, Thomas H, Offord RD, Boyle MH. Risk,
protective factors, and prevalence of behavioral and
emotional disorders in children and adolescent. J Am
Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989;28:262-8.
10. Jensen PS, Bloedau L, Degroot J, Ussery T, Davis H.
Children at risk: I.Risk factors and child symptomatol-
ogy. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1990;29:51-
9.
11. Achenbach TM. Manual for the child behavior check-
list/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington: University of
Vermont, Department of Psychiatry; 1991.
12. Achenbach TM, Ruffle TM. The child behavior check-
list and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional
problems and competencies. Pediatrics in Review
2000;21:8-14.
13. Muchlas M. An evaluation of a community based
mental health course in Indonesia. Submitted for
Doctor of Philosophy. Faculty of Graduate Stud-
ies, The University of Western Ontario; 1986. p.
41-4.
14. Badan Pusat Statistik. Pengukuran tingkat kemiskinan di
Indonesia 1976-1999, Jakarta. Jakarta: Badan Pusat
Statistik; 1999. p. 41-84
15. Offord DR, Boyle MH, Racine Y. Ontario child heath
study: correlates of disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc
Psychiatry 1989;28:856-60.
16. Seifer R, Sameroff AJ, Baldwin CP, Baldwin A. Child and
family that ameliorate risk between 4 and 13 years of age.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1992;31:893-903.
17. Raadal M, Milgrom P, Cauce AM, Mancl L. Behavior
problems in 5- to 11 year-old children from low income
families. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
1994;33:1017-25.