Epidemiology of Rotavirus diarrhea in children under five: A hospital-based surveillance in Jakarta

  • Muzal Kadim Department of Child Health, Univetsity of Indonesia Medical School/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta
  • Yati Soenarto Department of Child Health, Gadjah Mada University Medical School/Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Central Java
  • Badriul Hegar Department of Child Health, Univetsity of Indonesia Medical School/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta
  • Agus Firmansyah Department of Child Health, Univetsity of Indonesia Medical School/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta
Keywords: epidemiology, incidence, acute diarrhea, rotavirus, children, Jakarta


Background Rotavirus is still a major cause of acute diarrhea in children around the world, both in developed and developing
countries. WHO Surveillance from 2001 to 2008 showed that in children under five years of age treated for acute diarrhea, on average 40% of cases were caused by rotavirus. A previous study in Indonesia showed that the incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in children ranged from 20%ô€‘60% of diarrhea cases. However, there have been few studies identifying the genotypes of rotavirus strains in Indonesia. This infonnation is indispensable for manufacturing vaccines.

Objective To examine the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea, including genotypes and clinical characteristics, in children under five years who were hospitalized in Jakarta.

Methods This study was a prospective surveillance conducted at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta from January to December 2007 investigating hospitalized children under five years of age who suffered from acute diarrhea.

Results Ninetyô€‘nine patients joined the study. The incidence of rotavirus infection in this study was 67%. The youngest was 2
months of age and the oldest 54 months of age, Mth an average age of 13.6 months. As much as 92% of rota virus diarrhea was found in subjects aged 3ô€‘23 months, Mth a peak age of 12ô€‘23 months. Nutritional status, degree of dehydration, bloating, fever, blood in stool, and mucus in the feces were not significantly different between rotavirus and nonô€‘rotavirus diarrhea. Vomiting tended to be more frequently experienced by children Mth rotavirus diarrhea than those with nonô€‘rotavirus (88% vs. 67%). There was no clear, seasonal pattern for rotavirus diarrhea. Most G genotypes in this study were G1 (35%), G9 (12.5%), G2 (7.5%) and the majority of P genotypes were P6 (52.5%), P8 (17.5%) and P4 (10%).

Conclusions The incidence of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children under five years of age in Jakarta was 67%, with a
predominance ofG1, G9 and G2 genotypes. 


1. Parashar UD, Hummelman EG, Bresse JS, Miller MA, Glass RI. Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9,565-72.
2. Parashar UD, Gibson CJ, Bresee JS, Glass RI. Rotavirus and severe childhood diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12:304-6.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Rotavirus surveillance􀁧􀁧worldwide, 2001􀁧2008. MMW R Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57,1255-7.
4. Bresee JS, Hummelman E, Nelson AS, Glass RI. Rotavirus in Asia: the value of surveillance for informing decisions about the introduction of new vaccines. J Infect Dis. 2005; 192:S1-S5.
5. Nelson EAS, Tam jS, Bresee jS, Poon KH, Ng CH, Ip KS, et al. Estimates of rotavirus disease burden in Hong Kong: hospital-based surveillance. J Infect Dis. 2005; 192:S71-S79.
6. Mast TC, Chen PY, Lu KC, Hsu CM, lin HC, Liao WC, et al. Epidemiology and economic burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitals and paediatric clinics in Taiwan, 2005-2006. Vaccine. 2010;28,3008-13.
7. Malek MA, Teleb N, Abu-Elya,eed R, Riddle MS, Sherif ME, Steele AD, et al. T he epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. J Infect Dis. 20 1O;202(Suppl),S 12-22.
8. Mwenda JM, Ntoto KM, Abebe A, Enweronu-Laryea C, Amina I, Mchomvu J, et al. Burden and epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in selected African countries: preliminary results from the African rotavirus surveillance network. J Infect Dis. 2010;202 (Suppl) ,S5-S11.
9. Kim jS, Kang jO, Cho SC, lang YT, Min SA, Park TH, et al. Epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection in the republic of Korea: results from prospective surveillance in the jeongeub district, 1 july 2002 through 30 june 2004. J Infect Dis. 2005;192,S49-S56.
10. Hsu Vp, Rahman H, Wong, Ibrahim LH, Yusoff AF, Chan LG, et al. Estimates of the burden of rota virus disease in Malaysia. J Infect Dis. 2005;192,S80-S6.
11. Van ManN, Van TrangN, LienHp, Prach DD, Thanh NTH, Tu pv, et al. The epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Vietnam: sentinel surveillance at 6 hospitals. J Infect Dis. 2001; 183, 1707-12.
12. Jain V, Das M, Bhan MK, Glass RI, Gentsch JR. Great diversity of group A rotavirus strains and high incidence of mixed rotavirus infections in India. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3524-9.
13. Santos N, Volotao EM, Soares CC, Campos GS, Sardi SI, Hoshino Y. Predominance of Rotavirus Genotype G9 during the 1999, 2000, 2002 seasons among hospitalized children in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil: implications for future vaccine strategies. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43 :4064-9.
14. Intusoma U, Sornsrivichai V, Jiraphongsa C, Varavithaya W. Epidemiology, clinical presentations and burden of rota virus diarrhea in children under five seen at Ramathibodi Hospital, T hailand. j Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91;13 50-5.
15. Standaert B, Harlin 0, Desselberger U. The financial burden of rotavirus disease in four countries of the European Union. Pediatr Infect Dis j. 2008;27 (Suppl), S20-S7.
16. Bozdayi G, Dogan N, Dalgic B, Bostanci I, Sari S, Battaloglu NO, et al. Diversity of human rotavirus G9 among children in Turkey. j Med Virol. 2008;80;733-40.
17. Khoury H, Ogilvie I, El Khoury AC, Duan Y, Goetghebeur MM. Burden of rota virus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;7;11,9.
18. Hegar B, Kadim M, Pasaribu A. Karakteristik mikroorganisme saluran cerna pada anak dengan diare akut. Maj Kedokt Indones. 2004;54,367-71.
19. Hegar B. Evaluasi penderita diare yang dirawat di bangsal Gastroenterologi anak RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo. Maj Kes Masy Indones. 1995;8.563-5.
20. Soenarto Y, Sebodo T, Ridho R, Alrasjid H, Rohde JE, Bugg HC, et al. Acute diarrhea and rotavirus infection in newborn babies and children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from June 1978 to june 1979. J Clin Microbiol. 1981; 14, 123-9.
21. Bishop RF, Unicomb LF, Soenarto Y, Suwardji H, Ristanto, Barnes GL. Rotavirus serotypes causing acute diarrhea in hospitalized children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia during 1978 -1979. Arch Virol. 1989;107,207-13.
22. Soenarto Y, Aman AT, Bakri A, Waluya H, Firmansyah A, Kadim M, et al. Burden of severe rotavirus diarrhea in Indonesia. J Infect Dis. 2009;200(Suppl) ,S 188-94.
23. Huppertz HI, Salman N, Giaquinto C. Risk factors for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis]. 2008;27:S11-S9.
How to Cite
Kadim M, Soenarto Y, Hegar B, Firmansyah A. Epidemiology of Rotavirus diarrhea in children under five: A hospital-based surveillance in Jakarta. PI [Internet]. 30Jun.2011 [cited 1Jun.2023];51(3):138-. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/715
Pediatric Gastrohepatology
Received 2016-09-28
Accepted 2016-09-28
Published 2011-06-30