The influence of stressor on blood pressure in school children
AbstractBackground Physical and psychological stress such as child anxi-
ety, can increase blood pressure.
Objective To evaluate the role of vein puncture as a stressor caus-
ing alteration of blood pressure in school children.
Methods This study was a descriptive, pre and post test study as
a part of a screening study on primary school children at Cibubur
subdistrict in East Jakarta. Blood pressure was measured before
and after a vein puncture procedure in 449 children. Nine children
were excluded because of incomplete data.
Results The increase of systolic blood pressure was found in 121
(27.5%) subjects, decrease in 42 (9.5%), and no change in 227
(63%). Diastolic blood pressure increased in 123 (28.0%) subjects,
decreased in 38 (8.6%), and did not change in 279 (63.4%). The
increase of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found in
61 (13.8%), increased systolic with no change of diastolic in 58
(13.2%), and increased systolic with decreased diastolic in 2 (0.5%)
children. Decreased systolic with increased diastolic was found in
2 (0.5%) subjects, decreased systolic with no change of diastolic
in 26 (5.9%), and decrease of both systolic and diastolic in 14 (3.2%)
children. No changes in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure
were found in 195 (44.3%); no change in systolic with decreased
diastolic blood pressure was found in 22 (5.0%) children.
Conclusion In most of the school children, vein puncture proce-
dure did not cause alteration on blood pressure
Clinical pediatric nephrology. 1 st ed. Toronto: McGraw-
Hill; 1994. p. 323-76.
2. Lauer RM, Clarke WR, Mahoney LT, Witt J. Child-
hood predictors for high adult blood pressure. Pediatr
Clin N Am 1993;40:23-40.
3. Treiber FA, Musante L. Riley W, Mabe PA, Carr T,
Levy M, et al. The relationship between hostility
and blood pressure in children. Behav Med
4. Bonilla-Felix MA, Yetman RJ, Portman RJ. Epidemiol-
ogy of hypertension. In: Barrat, Avner, Harmon, edi-
tors. Pediatric nephrology. 4 th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins; 1999. p. 959-85.
5. Task force on blood pressure control in children. Re-
port of the second task force on blood pressure control
in children. Pediatrics 1987;79:1-25.
6. Dillon MJ. Hypertension. In: Postlethwaite, editor.
Clinical paediatric nephrology. 2 nd ed. Oxford:
Butterworth Heinemann; 1994. p. 175-95.
7. Fixler DE, Laird WP, Fitzgerald V Reiter MA, Lauer
RM. Hypertension screening in schools. Results of the
Dallas study. Pediatrics 1979;63:32-6
8. Rames KL, Clark WL, Connor WR, Reiter MA, Lauer
RM. Normal blood pressure and the evaluation of sus-
tained blood pressure in elevation in childhood. The
Muscatine study. Pediatrics 1987;79:1-9
9. Goble MM. Hypertension in infancy. Pediatr Clin N
10. Gillman MW, Ellison RC. Childhood prevention of
essential hypertension. Pediatr Clin N Am
11. Klesges RC, Haddock CK, Eck LH. A multimethod
approach to the measurement of childhood physical
activity and its relationship to blood pressure and body
weight. J Pediatr 1990:116-868.
12. Shaper AG, Wannamethee G, Whincup P. Alcohol and
blood pressure in middle age Britishmen. J Hum
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.