Prognostic factors of refractory epilepsy in children

Main Article Content

Ramzi Ramzi
Yati Soenarto
Sunartini Sunartini
M Hakimi


Background Epilepsy is one of the most common pediatric
neurological disorders. Twenty percent of patients will develop
refractory epilepsy. Early identification of refractory epilepsy will
be helpful to conduct adequate counseling and selecting patients
who need more intensive investigation and treatment.
Objective To identify the clinical characteristics and other factors
that are related to refractory epilepsy in children.
Methods We conducted a case control study in patients of two to
18 years old with epilepsy that admitted to Dr. Sardjito Hospital.
There were 4 7 children with refractory epilepsy compared with
122 subjects who have been one year free of seizure.
Results Strong association had been noted between refractory
and several clinical factors: early onset of seizure, high initial
seizure frequency, neonatal asphyxia, symptomatic etiology, status
epilepticus, abnormal neurodevelopmental status, and early
breakthrough seizures after treatment initiation. On multivariate
analysis, more than 20 seizures prior to treatment initiation (OR
3.40, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.3), and more than three seizures in the
subsequent six month after treatment initiation (OR 16.02, 95%
CI 4.98 to 51.5) were independent prognostic factors related to
refractory epilepsy.
Conclusion Children who present high frequency seizures at
onset and more than 3 breakthrough seizures subsequent to six
month after treatment have risks of developing refractory epilepsy.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ramzi R, Soenarto Y, Sunartini S, Hakimi M. Prognostic factors of refractory epilepsy in children. PI [Internet]. 15Sep.2016 [cited 21Jul.2019];48(5):269-3. Available from:
Author Biographies

Ramzi Ramzi

Department of Child Health, Medical School, Gadjah Mada
University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Yati Soenarto

Department of Child Health, Medical School, Gadjah Mada
University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Sunartini Sunartini

Department of Child Health, Medical School, Gadjah Mada
University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

M Hakimi

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School,
Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Received 2016-09-11
Accepted 2016-09-11
Published 2016-09-15


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