Association between type of cerebral palsy and the cognitive levels
AbstractBackground Cerebral palsy is the main cause of physical disability
during childhood. Assessment is necessary to acknowledge the
level of intelligence of the patients and to prevent impairments
in order to plan the prompt intervention.
Objectives To evaluate the cognitive levels of cerebral palsy and
association between cognitive levels and its types.
Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on subjects
from Sekolah Luar Biasa Negeri 3 Yogyakarta. Intelligence was
measured using the Stanford-Binet intelligence scales, whereas
diagnosis of cerebral palsy was based on criteria of the American
Academy for Cerebral Palsy (AACP). Data were analyzed using
Results There were 35 subjects, comprising of 21 boys and 14
girls aged 5-18 years. The results show that in general, children
with cerebral palsy had mental retardation in several cognitive
levels. Children with hemiplegia type (1 subject) had IQ level that equals to mental retardation. Children with spastic diplegia type (6 subjects) showed borderline IQ (1) and mental retardation (5). Children with quadriplegia type ( 15 subjects) had superior IQ (1), borderline (7) and mental retardation (7). Out of 13 subjects with athetoid type 2, had borderline IQ (2), and mental retardation (11). The statistical analysis with chi-square test resulted in P = 0.114 (P < 0.05).
Conclusion Our data showed that most patients with cerebral palsy had mental retardation of several cognitive level but there was no significant association between each type of cerebral palsy with cognitive levels.
Children With Disabilities. Developmental surveillance
and screening of infants and young children. Pediatrics.
2. Krigger KW Cerebral Palsy: An overview. Am Fam Physician.
3. Kuban KCK, Leviton A. Cerebral palsy. N Engl J Med.
4. Rosenbaum PL, Walter SO, Hanna SE, Palisano RJ, Russell
OJ, Raina P, et al. Prognosis for gross motor function in
cerebral palsy. JAMA. 2002; 288:1357-63.
5. Vincer MJ, Allen AC, Joseph KS, Stinson DA, Scott H, Wood
E. Increasing prevalence of cerebral palsy among very pre term
infants: lowercase. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e1621-6.
6. Rosenbaum P. Cerebral palsy: what parents and doctors want
to know. BMJ. 2003;326:970-4.
7. Beckung E, Hagberg G. Neuroimpairments, activity
limitations, and participation restriction in children with
cerebral palsy. Dev Med & Child Neur. 2002;44: 309-16.
8. Rambe AM, Syarifuddin A, Saik B. Intelligence level in
children with cerebral palsy (CP) at YPAC Medan. Med J
9. Brett EM. Paediatric Neurology. Churchill Livingstone:
10. Menkes JH. Textbook of child neurology. 5th ed. USA:
Williams & Wilkins; 1995.
11. Sugiyono. Metode penelitian administrasi. Bandung:
Alfabeta, 2004; p. 98
12. Tunggal HS. Undang-Undang Perlindungan Anak (UndangUndang
Nomor 23 Tahun 2002. Jakarta: Harvarindo; 2005.
13. Titien I. Penyimpangan dentokraniofasial anak palsi sere bra!
usia 8-16 tahun dan faktor risikonya [Dissertation]. Jakarta:
University of Indonesia; 2007.
14. Fourd-Martin PA. Stanford-Binet intelligence scales.
American Psychological Association. 2006 . [cited 2006
August 19]. Available from: http://www.apa.org.
15. Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, Leviton A, Paneth N.
Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Dev
Med & Child Neur. 2005;47:571-6.
16. Hutton JL, Pharoah POD. Effects of cognitive, motor, and
sensory disabilities on survival in cerebral palsy. Arch Dis
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.