Detection of childhood developmental disorders, behavioral disorders, and depression in a post-earthquake setting

Main Article Content

Yogi Prawira
Intan Tumbelaka
Ali Alhadar
Erwin Hendrata
Renno Hidayat
Dave Anderson
Trevino Pakasi
Bernie Endyarni
Rini Sekartini

Abstract

Background Disasters, including earthquakes, may strike abruptly without warning. Children may develop psychological damage resulting from experiencing an overwhelmingly traumatic event. They may feel very frightened during a disaster and demonstrate emotional and behavioral problems afterwards.


Objective To evaluate the presence of developmental disorders, behavioral disorders, and depression in children after the earthquake at Padang and Pariaman on September 30th, 2009.

Methods This was a cross􀁘sectional study using the developmental pre screening questionnaire (KPSP), Pediatric Symptoms Checklist-17 (PSC-17), and Child Depression Inventory (CDI) in children after the Padang and Pariaman earthquake (September 30th, 2009), in Sungai Limau and Sungai Geringging District, Pariaman Region, West Sumatera. Our study was conducted October 15th to November 28th, 2009.


Results There were 172 children screened using the KPSP. Forty-two (25%) children scored 7􀁘8 (reason for concern), 18 (10%) children scored <7 (suspected to have a developmental disorder), and the remainder scored as developmentally appropriate. Behavioral disorder screening was perfonned in 339 children using the PSC􀁘 17. Internalizing disorder alone was suspected in 58 (17%) children, externalizing disorder alone in 26 (7.7%), and attention􀁘defidt disorder alone in 5 (1.5%). Eight (2.4%) children were suspected to have both internalizing and attention􀁘defidt disorders, 4 (1.2%) children externalizing and attention􀁘defidt disorders, 22 (6.5%) children internalizing and externalizing disorders, and 15 (4.4%) children all three disorders. From 4 9 children who underwent depression screening using CDI, 15
(30.6%) children were suspected to have depression. 


Conclusion After the Padang and Pariaman earthquake, we found 10% of subjects screened were suspected of having a developmental disorder. The most connnonbehavioral disorder found was internalizing disorder. Possible depression was found in 30.6% of children surveyed. Traumatized children are at risk for developing post traumatic stress disorder. 

2011;5' :133-7].

 

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Prawira Y, Tumbelaka I, Alhadar A, Hendrata E, Hidayat R, Anderson D, Pakasi T, Endyarni B, Sekartini R. Detection of childhood developmental disorders, behavioral disorders, and depression in a post-earthquake setting. PI [Internet]. 30Jun.2011 [cited 6Dec.2021];51(3):133-. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/503
Section
Articles
Received 2016-09-08
Accepted 2016-09-08
Published 2011-06-30

References

1. Durkin MS, Khan N, Davidson LL, Zaman SS, Stein ZA. The effects of a natural disaster on child behavior: evidence for posttraumatic stress. AmJ of Pub Health. 1993;83: 1549- 53.
2. Bradburn IS. After the earth shook: children's stress symptoms 6􀁚8 months after a disaster. Adv Behav Res Ther. 1991;13;173-9.
3. Dharmono S, Agiananda F, Redayani P, Diatri H. Gangguan stres pasca trauma: Panduan praktis bagi tenaga kesehatan. Jakarta: Pusat Kajian Bencana dan Tindak Kekerasan Departemen Psikiatri FKUI RSCM; 2008. p. 1-15.
4. Breslau N, Peterson EL, Kessler RC, Schultz LR. Short screening scale for DSM􀁚IV posttraumatic stress disorder. Am) Psychiatry. 1999;156;908-11.
5. Wiguna T, Pleyte EH, N oorhana, Hadisukanto G, SinagaJP. Memahami reaksi emosi dan perilaku anak pasca bencana. Jakarta: Divisi Psikiatri Anak dan Remaja Departemen Psikiatri FKUI RSCM; 2005. p. 1-71.
6. Gurwitch RH, Silovsky JF, Shultz S, Kees M, Burlingame S. Possible reactions in children after trauma/disaster. [cited 2010 October 25]. Available from: http://uww.helping.apa.org.
7. Gurwitch RH, Silovsky JF, Schultz SS, Kees M, Burlingame S. Reactions and guidelines for children folloMng trauma/disaster. Communication Disorders Quarterly. 2002;23:93-9.
8. Irwanto. Trauma dan gangguan pascatrauma pada anak. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Atma Jaya; 2007. p. 1-34.
9. US Department of Health and Human Services. [homepage on the internet]. Helping childen and adolescents cope Mth violence and disasters. [cited 2010 October 25]. Available from: http://uww.hhs.gov/em.ergency.
10. The National Institute of Mental Health. [homepage on the internet]. Helping children and adolescents cope Mth violence and disaster. [cited 2010 October 2005]. Available from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publieations/helpingchildren-and-adoleseents-cope -with-vioIenee -and-disasterparents!
complete-index.shtml.
11. Penn State Children's Hospital Pediatric Trauma Program and Department of Psychiatry. [homepage on the internet]. Helping children c o p e after a disaster. [cited 2010 October 25]. Available from: http://uww.ehildadvocate.net/d-asterbooklet. pdf
12. American Red Cross. [homepage on the internet]. Helping children cope Mth disaster. [cited 2010 October 25]. Available from: http://w w w.eert-la!com/edueation/ HelpingChildrenCopeWithD-aster.pdf
13. Departemen Kesehatan RI. Pedoman pelaksanaan stimulasi,
deteksi dan intervensi dini tumbuh kembang anak di tingkat pelayanan kesehatan dasar. Jakarta; 2006. p. 1-35.
14. Green BL, Korol M, Grace MC, Vary MG, Leonard AC, Gleser GC, et al. Children and disaster: age, gender, and parental effects on PTSD symptoms. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1991;30;945-51.
15. Anonymous. The emotional effects of disaster on children: A review of the literature. [cited 2010 October 25]. Available from; http;//www.sjsu.edu/facultyAaptekar/ download/ijmh.pdf.
16. Ronan KR. The effects of a benign disaster: symptoms of post􀁚traumatic stress in children folloMng a series of volcanic eruptions. The Aus J of Dis and Tr Studies. 1997;1. [cited 2010 October 25]. Available from: http://w uw.massey.ac.nz/-trauma/issues/1997 -1 /ronan1.htm
17. Reijneveld SA, Crone MR, Verhulst F C, Verloove􀁚Vanhorick SP. The effect of a severe disaster on the mental health of adolescents: a controlled study. The Lancet. 2003;362:691-6.
18. Becker􀁚Weidman A. Complex post traumatic stress disorder: Definition, assessment, treatment. [cited 2010 October 25]. Available from: http://w uw.eenter4 familydevelop.eom/Complex_Post Traumatic_Stress Disorder[ 1 J.pdf.