Main Article Content
Background Approximately 8-15% of all infants are born with
evidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Many
of these infants rapidly initiate a good respiratory response and
are othenvise vigorous. Other infants present v.ith a variety of
respiratory distress. Chest x-ray imaging is the main test done to
evaluate respiratory distress in order to differentiate pulmonary
and extrapulmonary etiologies.
Objective To determine the relationship between viscosity of
MSAF and chest x-ray imaging results.
Methods This cross-sectional study was held from January to June
2011, as a continuation of a previous study from August 2009 to
May 2010 at Kariadi Hospital, Semarang, Indonesia. Data was
taken from medical records of babies who were born v.ith MSAF.
MSAF viscosity measurements by the investigator and laboratory
technician were assessed by Kappa test in the previous study with
a result of 0.7 4. X-ray findings were determined by the radiologist
on duty at that time. Chi square and logistic regressiontests were
used for statistical analysis.
Results There were 48 subjects consisting of 26 males and 22
females. Chest x-ray imaging results showed normal findings in
33.3% of subjects, pneumonia in 58.3% of subjects and meconium
aspiration syndrome in 8.3% of subjects. Thick viscosity MSAF
was significantly correlated to abnormal x-ray imaging (RR= 2.046;
P=0.004; 95%CI 1.12 t03.72).
Conclusion Thick MSAF viscosity significantly increased the
risk of abnormal chest x-ray findings. [Paediatr Indones.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
aspiration syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:28-30.
2. Cleary GM, Wiswell TE. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid
and the meconium aspiration syndrome:an update. Pediatr
ClinNorth Am.1 998;45,s11-29.
3. Velaphi S, Vidyasagar D. Intrapartum and postdelivery
management of infants born to mothers v.ith meconiumstained
amniotic fluid: evidence-based recommendations. Clin
4. Klingner, MC, Kruse J. Meconium aspiration syndrome:
pathophyiology and prevention. J Am Board Fam Pract.
5. Panichkul S, ooonpraset K, Komolpis S, Panickul P, Caengow
S. The association between meconium-stained amniotic fluid
and chorioamnionitis or endometritis. J Med Assoc Thai.
6. NarliN, Kirimi E, Satar M, Turkmen M, HalazaM, Yapicioglu
H. Evaluation and management of neonates v.ith meconium
stained amniotic fluid. EastJ Med. 2001;6:18-21.
7. Williamson, Susan L. Meconium aspiration syndrome
(MAS). In; Primary Pediatric Radiology. Philadelphia; WB
Saunders; 2002. p. 1 9·20.
8. Kosim MS, Suromo LB, Hendarwati C. Associations of
viscosity, stercobilin and bilirubin levels in meconium stained
amniotic fluid to meconium aspiration syndrome. Pediatr
9. Leu M, Lin C. Meconium aspiration imaging. Meadscape
Reference. [updated 2011 May 27; cited 2011 Jun 15].
Available from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/artide!410756-
10. Shaikh EM, Mehmood S, Shaikh MA. Neonatal outcome
in meconium stained amniotic fluid one year experience.J
Pak Med Assoe. 2010;60;711-4.
11. Khatun HA, Arzu J, Haque E, Kamal MA, Almamun MA,
Khan MFH, et al. Fetal outcome in deliveries v.ith meconium
stained liquor. Bangladesh J Child Health. 2009 ;33;41-5.
12. Naven S, Kumar Sv, Ritu S, Kushla P. Predictor of meconium
stained amniotic fluid: a possible strategy to reduce
neonatal morbidity and mortality. J Obstet Gynecol India.
1 3 . Sheiner E, Hadar E, Vaidi SI, Hallak M, Katz M, Mazor
M. The effect of meconium on perinatal outcome: a
prospective analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med.
14. Khazardoost S, Hantoushzadeh S, Khooshidesh M, Borna S.
Risk factors for meconium aspiration in meconium stained
amniotic fluid.J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27:577-9.
15. Choi JH, Chi JG. A fullterm v.ith respiratory distress and
meconium staining. Seoul J Med. 1 991;32:71-6.
16. Ziadeh SM, Sunna E. Obstetric and perinatal outcome
of pregnancies with term labour and meconium-stained
amniotic fluid. Arch Gyncaecol Obstet. 2000;264:84-7.
17. Clark MB. Meconium aspiration syndrome. Emedicine.
[updated 2012 June 6; cited 2012 Jun 15]. Available from;