Risk of early onset pneumonia in neonates with abnormal gastric aspirate
AbstractBackground Early onset neonatal pneumonia is the risk factor
for neonatal sepsis that increases risk for neonatal deaths.
Recognition, prevention, and treatment of this problem is major
factors in the managemant of high risk neonates. Analysis of
gastric aspirate, collected soon after birth is a useful screening
test for predicting pneumonia.
Objective To evaluate the risk of early onset of neonatal
pneumonia in neonates with abnormal gastric aspirate.
Methods A case control study was done on infants with early
onset neonatal pneumonia born in Sanglah Hospital during the
period of July 2004 until November 2005. The control group
consisted of high risk infants without early onset pneumonia.
Multiple logistic regressions was performed to determine the
confounding effects of multiple variables that were considered as
risk factors for early-onset neonatal pneumonia.
Results Forty-five infants with early onset neonatal pneumonia
were recruited. Multivariate analysis showed that abnormal gastric
aspirate and low APGAR score were significant factors associated
with early-onset of neonatal pneumonia with OR 4.05 (95%CI
1.26;13,02), P=0.019, and OR 6.95 (95%CI 2.45;19.77),
Conclusion Abnormal gastric aspirate and low APGAR score are
risk factors for early onset neonatal pneumonia in high risk infants.
Available from: url: http://www.eMedicine.com/ped/
2. Indarso F, Sarwono E, Pudjirahardjo WJ. Pemeriksaan cairan
lambung pada bayi baru lahir dengan risiko infeksi. In:
Sarwono E, Ranuh IGN, Santoso G, Setiono P, editors.
Buletin Ilmu Kesehatan Anak FK Unair XXIII. FK Unair;
1994 2 Oktober; Surabaya: BP FK Unair, 1994.
3. Team Unit Perinatologi. Laporan pelayanan unit perinatologi
RS Sanglah tahun 2003.
4. Duke T. Neonatal pneumonia in developing countries. Arch
Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Rev 2005;90:211-9.
5. Webber S, Wilkinson AR, Lindsel D, Hope PL, Dopson SR,
Isaacs D. Neonatal pneumonia. Arch Dish Child Rev
6. Miclat NN, Hodgkinson R, Marx GF. Neonatal gastric pH.
Anesth Analg 1978;57:98-101.
7. Neu J, Nan Li. The neonatal gastrointestinal tract:
developmental anatomy, physiology, and clinical implications.
8. Cowles TA, Gonik B. Perinatal infections. In: Fanaroff AA,
Martin RJ, editors. Neonatal-perinatal medicine diseases of
the fetus and infant. 6 th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1997. p. 327-40.
9. Leibovich M, Gale M, Slater PE. Usefulness of the gastric
aspirate examination in the diagnosis of neonatal infection.
Trop Geogr Med 1987;39:15-7.
10. Thompson PJ, Gamsu HR, Nicolaides KH, Howard JP.
Congenital bacterial sepsis in very preterm infants. J Med
11. Gaston B. Pneumonia. Pediatr Rev 2002;23:324-32.
12. Hickey SM, Mccracken G. Postnatal bacterial infections. In:
Fanaroff AA, Martin RJ, editors. Neonatal-perinatal medicine
diseases of the fetus and infant. 6 th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1997.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.