Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G in paired infant-and-mother sera

Main Article Content

Ayling Sanjaya
Nurhayati Masloman
Rocky Wilar
Josef Tuda


Background  Toxoplasmosis  is  a worldwide zoonotic disease
caused  by  Toxoplasma  gondii.  Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT)
is  the  result  of  vertical transmission  during  pregnancy  that
may cause pathologic effects  on  the newborn such  as  classical
triad  of  congenital toxoplasmosis.  Newborn  humans  are  not
immunologically  competent  and the infant must be protected  by passive lgG antibodies  that  are selectively transported across the placenta during development.  We  studied the transfer  of  passive lgG from the  mother  to developing infant using blood specimen taken from the infant within one  month  of  birth.
Objective  To  determine the seropositivity  of  lgG to  T.  gondii  in paired sera  of  infants and mothers.
Methods  A cross sectional study was carried  out  on  50 paired
sera  of  infants  of  less  than  one  month  of  age and their mothers. The  study was carried  out  between November 2007 and January 2008  at  Prof.  R.  D.  Kandou Hospital in Manado.  T.  gondii  lgG was detected using the Latex Agglutination method.  The  seropositivity ofT.  gondii  lgG was analyzed descriptively.
Results  A total  of  28 mothers from 50 infant-mother pairs were
seropositive for  T.  gondii  IgG.  Of  the 28 seropositive mothers, 22  of their paired infants were seropositive.  The  remaining six seropositive mothers  had  infants  that  were  not  seropositive for T.  gondii.
Conclusions  The  identification  of  seropositive lgG for  T.  gondii in infants less  than  one  months  age indicates  that  the lgGs in infants are mostly derived from their mothers.  CT  must be considered  and  further  examinations  are needed.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sanjaya A, Masloman N, Wilar R, Tuda J. Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G in paired infant-and-mother sera. PI [Internet]. 30Apr.2009 [cited 27Feb.2020];49(2):65-. Available from:
Author Biographies

Ayling Sanjaya

Department  of  Child Health, Medical School, Sam Ratulangi
University, Prof.  R.  D.  Kandou General Hospital, Manado, Indonesia

Nurhayati Masloman

Department  of  Child Health, Medical School, Sam Ratulangi
University, Prof.  R.  D.  Kandou General Hospital, Manado, Indonesia

Rocky Wilar

Department  of  Child Health, Medical School, Sam Ratulangi
University, Prof.  R.  D.  Kandou General Hospital, Manado, Indonesia

Josef Tuda

Department  of  Parasitology, Medical School,
Sam Ratulangi University, Prof.  R.  D.  Kandou General Hospital, Manado,
Received 2016-09-05
Accepted 2016-09-05
Published 2009-04-30


1. Fransisco FDM, Souza SL, Gennari SM, Pinheiro SR,
Muradiano V, Soares RM. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis
in a low income community in the Sao Paulo Municipality
SP Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2006;48 :S167-
2. Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM. Epidemiological aspects
of toxoplasmosis in school children residing in localities with
urban or rural characteristics within the city of Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. Mem lnst Oswaldo Cruz. 1987;82:475-82.
3. Jones JF, Lopez B, Mury MAY, Wilson M, Klein R, Luby S, Maguire JH. Toxoplasma gondii infection in rural Guatemalan
children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:295-300.
4. Montoya JG, Lieasenfield 0. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet.
2004;363: 1965-76.
5. Dubey JP. Toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, isosporosis and
cyclosporosis. In: Palmer SR, Soulby EJL, Simpson DJH,
editors. Zoonoses. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998;
p. 579-97.
6. Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM. Toxoplasma gondii:
From animals to humans. Int J Parasit. 2000;30: 1217-58.
7. Rampengan TH, Laurentz IR. Penyakit infeksi tropik pada
anak. 1" ed. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC,1997;
8. Thulliez P. Commentary: Efficacy of prenatal treatment for
toxoplasmosis: A possibility that can not be ruled out. Int J
Epidemiol. 2001 ;30:S1315-6.
9. Gandahusada. Parasitologi Kedokteran. Jrd ed. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia, 1998;
10. Rochiman Sasmita. Toxoplasmosis penyebab keguguran dan
kelainan bayi. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press, 2006;
p. 23-40.
11. Dachlan E.G. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Fetal antibodies
production in amniotic fluid. Majalah Kedokteran Tropis
Indonesia. 1999;12:S33-40.
12. Dachlan E.G. IgM anti toxoplasma dalam cairan ketuban
sebagai indikator toxoplasmosis kongenital serta korelasinya
dengan IgM anti toxoplasma seromaternal [dissertation].
Surabaya: Airlangga University; 1999.
13. Smith JL. Foodborne infections during pregnancy. J Food
Protect. 1999;62:818-29.
14. Holliman RE. Toxoplasmosis. In: Cook GC. Manson Tropical
Diseases. 21" ed. London: WB Saunders; 1996:1365-72.
15. Sanjaya A. Studi uji komparasi hasil pemeriksaan metode
ELISA dan aglutinasi latex dalam pemeriksaan antibodi lgG
Toxoplasma gondii pada wanita hamil di Puskesmas Pegirian
Surabaya [thesis]. Surabaya: Airlangga University; 2006.
16. Wallon M, Kodjikian L, Binquet C, GarwegJ, Fleury J, Quantin C, et al. Long term ocular prognosis in 327 children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Pediatrics. 2004; 113:1567-72.
17. Filisseti D, Gorcii M, Marino EP, Villard 0, Candolfi E.
Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, comparison of targets
for detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR. J Clin Microbial.
2003; 41:S4826-29.
18. Guerina NG, Hsu HW, Meissner C, Maguire JH. Neonatal
serologic screening and early treatment for congenital
Toxoplasma gondii infection. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330:1858-63.
19. Remington JS. Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1983; p. 140-260.
20. Male D, Brostoff J, Roth DB, Raitt I. Antibodies. In: Raitt IM, Male DK, editors. Immunology. 7'" ed. Philadelphia:
Mosby Elsevier. 2006; p. 59-86.
21. Singh S. Mother to child transmission and diagnosis of
Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Indian J Med
Micro bioi. 2003;21 :S69-76.
22. Paul WE. The immune system. In: Paul WE, editor.
Fundamental immunology. 5th ed. Lippincott William and
Wilkins. 2003;p. 1-22.
23. Kami Kim. Time to screen for congenital toxoplasmosis.
Chicago J Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42: 1395-97.