Main Article Content
intellectual development. Therefore, early stimulation in the
first three years of life play an important role especially in
disadvantaged communities such as foster homes.
Objective To determine the quality of home stimulation and
language development, and their correlations in children living
in orphanages and family homes.
Methods This study was conducted between December 2007 and
January 2008. Subjects were recruited from several orphanages
in Jakarta, Tangerang, Bogor, also three posyandus in Jakarta and
Tangerang. The quality of home stimulation was assessed using
Home Stimulation Observation for the Measurement of the
Environment (HOME) scores, while language development was
assessed using Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale
Development Quotient (CLAMS DQ).
Results A total of 80 healthy children, consisting of 40 children
in orphanages and 40 in family homes were enrolled. Inadequate
stimulation and language delay were found to be significantly
higher in the orphanage group (52.5% vs. 27.5%; P=0.022 and
57.5% vs. 10%; P<0.001, respectively). HOME Scores and
CLAMS DQ were also significantly lower in the orphanage
group compared to those in the family home group (25.6 vs
31.5; P<0.001 and 84.0 vs 110.7; P=0.002). Logistic regression
revealed that caregiver-child attachment time was the only
risk factor for language delay (OR 32.32; P<0.0001), in both
orphanages and family homes.
Result The quality of home stimulation is lower in the orphanages,
which results in a higher rate of language delay in children aged
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