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course of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) symptoms during
infancy; further, no risk factors of GER disease (GERD) have been
Objectives To determine the prevalence and natural course of
regurgitation in infancy and factors of gastroesophageal reflux
Methods A cohort of 223 healthy infants who attended Integrated
Health Services run by local housewife (Posyandu) of Ciputat –
suburb of Jakarta – between March and November 2005.
Information on subjects’ history of regurgitation and other reflux-
related symptoms was obtained by interviewing mother and diary
record. Subjects were followed up to age of 1 year irrespective of
the clinical status.
Results At 6 months of age most infants (56.5%) had regurgitation
1 to 3 days per week and only 2.7% infants regurgitated daily.
Regurgitation 1 to 3 episodes per day was found in 92.8% of
subjects. The proportion of infants regurgitation decreased
gradually with age; the proportion for the consecutive 6 to 11
month was 100%, 65.5%, 33.6%, 14.3%, 3.6% and 1.3%,
respectively. At the age of 1 year no infants was found to be
regurgitated. Related symptoms included hiccup (58.3%),
vomiting (23.3%) and back arching (2.2%). Feeding problem
occurred in 34.1% infants and occurred more likely in infants
who regurgitate daily compared to 4 – 6 day per week (OR 3.5;
95%CI 2.2;5.6) and 1 – 3 day per week (OR 1.8; 95%CI 0.6;0.9).
Conclusions Regurgitation in infancy disappears spontaneously
with age. Reflux-related symptoms are hiccup, vomiting and back
arching. Feeding problem occurs most likely in infants who
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