Natural course of gastroesophageal reflux disease during infancy - six-month follow-up

  • Eka Laksmi Hidayati
  • Agus Firmansyah
  • Alan R. Tumbelaka
Keywords: regurgitation, gastroesophageal reflux


Background Very few data have been published about the natural
course of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) symptoms during
infancy; further, no risk factors of GER disease (GERD) have been
Objectives To determine the prevalence and natural course of
regurgitation in infancy and factors of gastroesophageal reflux
Methods A cohort of 223 healthy infants who attended Integrated
Health Services run by local housewife (Posyandu) of Ciputat –
suburb of Jakarta – between March and November 2005.
Information on subjects’ history of regurgitation and other reflux-
related symptoms was obtained by interviewing mother and diary
record. Subjects were followed up to age of 1 year irrespective of
the clinical status.
Results At 6 months of age most infants (56.5%) had regurgitation
1 to 3 days per week and only 2.7% infants regurgitated daily.
Regurgitation 1 to 3 episodes per day was found in 92.8% of
subjects. The proportion of infants regurgitation decreased
gradually with age; the proportion for the consecutive 6 to 11
month was 100%, 65.5%, 33.6%, 14.3%, 3.6% and 1.3%,
respectively. At the age of 1 year no infants was found to be
regurgitated. Related symptoms included hiccup (58.3%),
vomiting (23.3%) and back arching (2.2%). Feeding problem
occurred in 34.1% infants and occurred more likely in infants
who regurgitate daily compared to 4 – 6 day per week (OR 3.5;
95%CI 2.2;5.6) and 1 – 3 day per week (OR 1.8; 95%CI 0.6;0.9).
Conclusions Regurgitation in infancy disappears spontaneously
with age. Reflux-related symptoms are hiccup, vomiting and back
arching. Feeding problem occurs most likely in infants who
regurgitate daily.

Author Biographies

Eka Laksmi Hidayati
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Agus Firmansyah
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Alan R. Tumbelaka
Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of
Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.


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How to Cite
Hidayati E, Firmansyah A, Tumbelaka A. Natural course of gastroesophageal reflux disease during infancy - six-month follow-up. PI [Internet]. 31Oct.2007 [cited 17Apr.2024];47(5):211-. Available from:
Received 2016-09-01
Accepted 2016-09-01
Published 2007-10-31