Correlation of blood lead level and intelligence quotient in children

Main Article Content

Lilian Gunawan
Nurhayati Masloman

Abstract

Background Lead poisoning is a source of health problems in
humans. A chronic complication oflead poisoning in children is
permanent intellectual impairment.
Objective To assess for a correlation of blood lead levels and
intelligence quotient (IQ) in children.
Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in children aged
6 to 8 years in th e Talawaan (a rural area) and Wenang (an urban
area) Distticts, North Sulawesi, from April to July 2012. Blood lead
levels were measured using the graphite furnace atomic absorption
spectrometry technique; and intelligence was meas ured with the
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Indonesian version.
Results There were 50 subjects from the Talawaan District and 54
subjects from the Wenang Disttict in this study. The mean blood
lead level in the Talawaan District subjects was significantly higher
than that of the Wenang Disttict subjects [25.8 (SD 16.98) μgidL
vs 11.4 (SD 13.81) μgidL, respectively; (P<0.001)]. There was a
weak negative correlation between blood lead level and IQ in the
Talawaan Disttict children (P= 0.038; r= -0.3). As such, there was
a 0.05 IQ point decrement associated with each increase of 1 μ gidL
in blood lead level in Talawaan District children. However, there
was no correlation between blood lead level and IQ in the Wenang
Disttict children (P=0.42; r =0.03).
Conclusion There is a weak negative correlation between blood
lead level and IQ in children living in a rural area, howevei; this
correlation is not found in children living in an urban area.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Gunawan L, Masloman N. Correlation of blood lead level and intelligence quotient in children. PI [Internet]. 30Jun.2014 [cited 20Sep.2019];54(3):127-1. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/407
Section
Articles
Received 2016-08-31
Accepted 2016-08-31
Published 2014-06-30

References

1. Binns HJ, Campbell C, Brown MJ, Cen ters for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Interpreting and man aging blood lead levels of less then 10 μg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposure to lead: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention . Pediatrics. 2007;120:1285-98.
2. American Academy of Pediatrics , Committee on Environ, mental Health. Screening for elevated blood lead levels. Pediatrics. 1998;101:1072-8.
3. Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Interpreting and managing blood lead level < 10 mg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposures to lead. Washington : CDC-MMWR Recommendations and Reports; 2007. p. 1-19.
4. Jin Y, Liao Y, Lu C, Li G, Yu F, Zhi X, et al. Health effects in children aged 3-6 years induced by environmental lead exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2006;63:313-7.
5. Chiodo LM, Jacobson SW, Jacobson JL. N eurodevelopmental effects of postnatal lead exposure at very low levels. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2004;26:359-71.
6. Solon 0, Riddell TJ, Quimbo SA, Butrick E, Aylward GP, Lou Bacate M, et al. Associations between cognitive function, blood lead concentration, and nutrition among children in the central Philippines. J Pediatr. 2008;237-43.
7. Canfield RL, Henderson CR, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1517-26.
8. Lanphear BP, Dietrich K, Auinger P, Cox C. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations < 10 μ g/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Rep. 2000;115:521-9.
9. Zailina H,Junidah R, Josephine Y, Jamal HH. The influence of low blood lead concentrations on the cognitive and physical development of primary school children in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2008;20:3l7-26.
10. Chandramouli K, Steer CD, Ellis M, Emond AM. Effects of early childhood lead exposure on academic performance and behaviour of school age children . Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:844-8.
11. Albalak R, Noonan G, Buchanan S, Flan ders WD, Gotway, Crawford C, Kim D, et al. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia. Sci Total Environ. 2003;301:75-85.
12. Lestari P. Faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terh adap kadar timbal dalam darah anak-anak sekolah di Bandung. Jumal Purifikasi. 2006;7:109-14.
13. Khidri MA, Sakkir B, Sjafruddin A. Kadar timbal dalam darah pada anak-anak di kota Makassar. Jumal Madani FKM UMI. 2008;1:96-106.
14. CDC. Update: Blood lead levels , United States, 1991-- 1994. MMWR. 1997;46:607.
15. WHO. Brief guide to analytical methods for measuring lead in blood. Geneva: WH0; 2011. p.4.
16. Wagiu AF, Wulur FH. Hubungan antara kadar timbal udara dengan kadar timbal darah s erta dampakn ya pad a anak. Sari Pediatri. 2006;8:238-43.
17. Warouw F. Analisis hubungan kadar Pb dalam darah dengan lama kerja pedagang kaki lima di pusat kota Manado akibat pemaparan gas buangan kendaran bermotor yang mengandung Pb [thesis]. Manado: IKM Unsrat; 2004.
18. WHO. Inorganic lead environmental health criteria. Geneva: IPCS WHO; 1995. p. 1-14.
19. Barbosa F, Fillion M, Lemire M, Passos CJ, Rodrigues JL, Philibert A, et al. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon. Environ Res. 2009;109:594-9.
20. Sumual H. Karakterisasi limbah tambang emas rakyat dimem, be kabupaten minahasa utara. Agritek. 2009;17:932-7.
21. Rumengan I. Dampak Biologi dari Pertambangan Emas Rakyat di Daerah Aliran Sungai Talawaan, Manahasa Utara. Makalah . Seminar masalah dan solusi penambangan emas di Kecamatan Dimembe 9 September 2004. p?
22. Jue S, Hardee R, Overman M, Mays E, Bowen A, Whichard J, et al. U.S CDC. Notes from the field: outbreak of acute lead poisoning among children aged < 5 years - Zamfara, Nigeria. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:846.
23. Isen J. A meta-analytic assessment of Wechsler' s P > V sign in antisocial populations. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30:423-35.
24. Baxter DJ, Motiuk LL, Fortin S. Intelligence and personality in criminal offenders. In: Saklfske DH, Zeidner M. International handbook of personality and intelligence. Perspectives on individual difference. New York: Plenum Press; 1995. p. 673-86.
25. Surkan PJ, Zhang A, Trachtenberg F, Daniel DB, McKinlay S, Bellinger DC. Neuropsychological function in children with blood lead levels < 10 μg/d L. Neurot oxicology. 2007;28:1170-7.
26. Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, Yolton K, Baghurst P, Bellinger DC, et al. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function : an in ternational pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:894-9.
27. Kordas K, Canfield RL, Lopez P, Rosado JL, Vargas GG, Cebrian ME, et al. Deficits in cognitive function and achievement in Mexican first-graders with low blood lead concentrations. Environ Res. 2006;100:371-86.