Main Article Content
Background Vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk or be
a cause of diarrhea. Many studies have been conducted on the
efficacy of vitamin A in the management of acute diarrhea, but
the outcomes remain inconclusive.
Objective To determine the effectiveness of vitamin A in reducing
the severity of acute diarrhea in children.
Methods We performed a singleblindrandomized controlled
trial in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency, North of
Sumatera, from August 2009 to January 2010 in children aged
6 months to 5 years, who had diarrheas. Subjects were divided
into two groups. Group 1 received a single dose of vitamin A
(100,000 IU for subjects aged 6 to 11 month old or with body
weights :s 10 kg, or 200,000 IU for subjects aged 2: 12 month old
or with body weights> 10 kg). Group 2 received a single dose
of placebo. The establishment of severity was based on changes
in diarrheal frequency, stool consistency, volume and duration
of diarrhea after treatment. We performed independent Ttest
and Chi square tests for statistical analyses. The study was an
Results We enrolled 120 children who were randomized into
two groups of 60 subjects each. Group 1, received vitamin A
and group 2 received a placebo. The results showed significant
differences between the two groups in stool volume starting on
the first day (95%CI 192.30 to 3237.51; PO.OOI), as well as
diarrheal frequency (P=O.OOl) and stool consistency (P=O.OOl)
on the second day observation and duration of diarrhea following
treatment (95%CI - 40.60 to - 25.79; PO.OOI;).
Conclusions Vitamin A supplementation is effective in reducing
the severity of acute diarrhea in children under five years of age.
[Paediatr lndones. 2013;53:125-31.]
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