Perceptions, practices, and associated factors towards expressed breastfeeding among mothers in Jakarta, Indonesia

Keywords: perception, practice, handling, storage, expressed breast milk


Background  Expression of breast milk is a strategy to ensures continuous  breastfeeding during temporary separation of infant from the mother. Handling and storage of expressed breast milk (EBM) should be based on established recommendations because these practices can affect milk quality and safety.

Objective  To describe perceptions and practices of EBM handling and storage, compare with commonly used recommendations and associated factors influencing these practices among mothers in Jakarta, Indonesia,  

Methods  Mothers who practiced expressed breastfeeding (EBF) to their 6-12 weeks-old infants completed questionnaires about their peceptions and practices on how they handle and storage EBM. The differences in perceptions and practices about expressed breastfeeding management were analyzed using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test.

Results  Among 30 mothers,  14/30 gave EBF exclusively,  19/30 used breast pump, and  26/30 expressed ³6 times/day. Infants in this study received expressed milk 5-10 times per day. Maternal age and resource of information were factors significantly associated with mother’s perceptions, while maternal age, education, and parity were significantly associated with the practices of EBM handling and storage.

Conclusion This study reveals inconsistent perceptions and practices on expressed milk handling and storage by the mothers. They have good knowledge about the theoretical aspects of expressed breastfeeding, but some other techniques are poor, which can be detrimental to the health of the infants. Further study is needed to find more efficient and optimal methods of expressed milk handling and storage, necessitating thoughtful consideration of better practices and recommendations.


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How to Cite
Pambudi W, Dewanto NE, Yusra Y, Werdhani R, Endaryanto A, Fahmida U, Alatas F, Hegar B. Perceptions, practices, and associated factors towards expressed breastfeeding among mothers in Jakarta, Indonesia. PI [Internet]. 23Apr.2024 [cited 20May2024];64(2):168-5. Available from:
Pediatric Nutrition & Metabolic Disease
Received 2023-09-20
Accepted 2023-09-26
Published 2024-04-23