Nutrient intake and stunting in children aged 2-5 years in a slum area of Jakarta

  • Ratnayani Ratnayani Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Diana Sunardi Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital
  • Fadilah Fadilah Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta
  • Badriul Hegar Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta
Keywords: children; macronutrients; nutrient intake; slums; stunting

Abstract

Background Stunting is one of the problems that occurs in children who live in slum areas. Inadequate nutrient intake has been associated with stunting in children.

Objective To assess nutrient intake and analyze the differences between stunted and non-stunted children aged 2-5 years.

Methods This comparative cross-sectional study compared nutrient intake and stunting among children 2-5 years in slum areas in Kebon Bawang Village North Jakarta. Subjects’ nutrient intake was assessed using the Semiquantitative-Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ). To analyze differences in subject characteristics and nutrient intake in the stunted and non-stunted groups, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney test, and independent T-test were used.

Results From a total of 42 respondents, the characteristics of subjects were not significantly different between the stunted and non-stunted groups, in age (P=0.120), gender (P=0.126), maternal occupation (P=0.729), or maternal education (P=0.127). The stunted group had significantly lower intake of energy (P=0.003), carbohydrates (P=0.024), protein (P=0.005), and fat (P=0.001) than that of the non-stunted group. However, the majority of subjects had protein adequacy above the sufficiency level in both groups (P=0.638), while significantly more subjects in the stunted group had insufficient carbohydrate adequacy than in the non-stunted group (P=0.032).

Conclusion Overall, nutrient intake in the stunted group is lower than that of the non-stunted group. Protein adequacy is above sufficient for most subjects in both groups, while the significantly more stunted subjects have insufficient carbohydrate adequacy. In carrying out interventions, it is necessary to consider fulfilling a balance of nutrients, especially macronutrients.

Author Biography

Badriul Hegar, Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta

 

References

Vlahov D, Freudenberg N, Proietti F, Ompad D, Quinn A, Nandi V, et al. Urban as a determinant of health. J Urban Health. 2007;84:16–26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-007-9169-3.
2. Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat. Profil kota tanpa daerah kumuh. [cited 2022 Dec 12]. Available from: http://www.kotaku.pu.go.id
3. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Standar Antropometri Anak. [cited 2024 Jan 24]. Available from https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Details/152505/permenkes-no-2-tahun-2020
4. Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2018. [cited 2020 June 22]. Available from: https://repository.badankebijakan.kemkes.go.id/id/eprint/3514/1/Laporan%20Riskesdas%202018%20Nasional.pdf
5. WHO. Nutrition Landscape Information System (NLIS). Country Profile Indicators.Interpretation Guide 2nd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019. ISBN 978-92-4-151695-2.
6. Beal T, Tumilowicz A, Sutrisna A, Izwardy D, Neufeld LM. A review of child stunting determinants in Indonesia. Matern Child Nutr. 2018;14:1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12617.
7. Ghosh TS, Gupta SS, Bhattacharya T, Yadav D, Barik A, Chowdhury A, et al. Gut microbiomes of Indian children of varying nutritional status. PLoS One. 2014;9: e95547. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095547.
8. Laurus G, Fatimah SN, Gurnida DA. Pattern of energy and protein intake among stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Althea Med J. 2016;3:364–70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15850/amj.v3n3.907.
9. Mikhail WZA, Sobhy HM, El-Sayed HH, Khairy SA, Abu Salem HYH, Samy MA. Effect of nutritional status on growth patterns of stunted preschool children in Egypt. Acad J Nutr. 2013;2:1–9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ajn.2013.2.1.7466.
10. Kane AV, Dinh DM, Ward HD. Childhood malnutrition and the intestinal microbiome malnutrition and the microbiome. Pediatr Res. 2015;77:256-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/pr.2014.179.Childhood.
11. Hakim AR. Optimalkan Golden Age Anak Untuk Generasi Bebas Stunting. [cited 2024 Jan 26]. Available from https://yankes.kemkes.go.id/view_artikel/2713/optimalkan-golden-age-anak-untuk-generasi-bebas-stunting.
12. Limardi S, Hasanah DM, Utami NMD. Dietary intake and stunting in children aged 6-23 months in rural Sumba, Indonesia. Paediatr Indones. 2022;62:341–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14238/pi62.5.2022.341-56.
13. Manggala AK, Kenwa KWM, Kenwa MML, Sakti AAGDPJ, Sawitri AAS. Risk factors for stunting in children aged 24-59 months. Paediatr Indonesia. 2018;58:205–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14238/pi58.5.2018.205-12.
14. Lanita U, Fatmalina F, Mutahar R. Gambaran perilaku positive deviance pada ibu dan status gizi anak batita dari keluarga miskin di Desa Pemulutan Ulu Kecamatan Pemulutan Kabupaten Ogan Ilir. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat. 2012;3:24–34.
15. Merita M, Hesty. Positive Deviance Gizi Pada Keluarga Miskin Di Desa Baru Sarolangun Jambi. Jurnal Ipteks Terapan. 2019;13:55-66. DOI: http://doi.org/10.22216/jit.2019.v13i1.1186
16. Bella FD. Pola Asuh Positive Deviance dan Kejadian Stunting Balita di Kota Palembang. Jurnal Kesehatan Vokasional. 2019;4:209-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkesvo.45725
17. Helmyati S, Yuliati E, Wisnusanti SU, Maghribi R, Juffrie M. Keadaan Mikrobiota Saluran Cerna pada Anak Sekolah Dasar yang Mengalami Stunting di Lombok Barat. Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan. 2017;12:55–60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2017.12.1.55-60
18. FAO. Dietary Assessment: A resource guide to method selection and application in low resource settings. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations; 2018. ISBN 978-92-5-130635-2.
19. Direktorat Jenderal Kesehatan Masyarakat. Tabel Komposisi Pangan Indonesia. [cited 2022 Jun 12]. Available from https://perpustakaan.kemkes.go.id/inlislite3/uploaded_files/dokumen_isi/Monograf/Tabel%20Komposisi%20Pangan%20Indonesia.pdf
20. Gibson RS. Food consumption of individuals. In: Gibson RS, ed. Principles of nutritional assessment. 3rd ed. 2023. [cited 2022 Nov 23]. Available from: https://nutritionalassessment.org/evn/index.html.
21. Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Buku Studi Diet Total: Survei Konsumsi Makanan Individu Indonesia 2014. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbitan Balitbang Kemenkes RI; 2014. p.12-13
22. Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 28 Tahun 2019 Tentang Angka Kecukupan Gizi yang Dianjurkan Untuk Masyarakat Indonesia. [cited 2022 Aug 23]. Available from: http://hukor.kemkes.go.id/uploads/produk_hukum/PMK_No__28_Th_2019_ttg_Angka_Kecukupan_Gizi_Yang_Dianjurkan_Untuk_Masyarakat_Indonesia.pdf
23. Amaha ND, Woldeamanuel BT. Maternal Factors Associated with Moderate and Severe Stunting in Ethiopian Children: Analysis of Some Environmental Factors Based on 2016 Demographic Health Survey. Nutrition Journal. 2021;20:18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-021-00677-6
24. Khan T, Khan REA, Raza MA. Gender analysis of malnutrition: a case study of school-going children in Bahawalpur. Asian Dev Policy Rev. 2015;3:29–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.107/2015.3.2/107.2.29.48.
25. Anjela P, Hidayat R, Harahap DH. Risk factors for stunting children aged 6-59 months in Pulau Panggung District, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Bioscientia Medicina. 2018;2:61-7. https://doi.org/10.32539/bsm.v2i2.48
26. Saputri RA, Anggraeni D, Sujadmi, Sopamena N. Environmental sanitation and stunting (Study of the role of women in stunting intervention). J Phys Conf Ser. 2020;1655:012083. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1655/1/012083.
27. Abuya BA, Ciera J, Kimani-Murage E. Effect of mother's education on child's nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12:80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-12-80.
28. Utami RA, Setiawan A, Fitriyani P. Identifying causal risk factors for stunting in children under five years of age in South Jakarta, Indonesia. Enferm Clin. 2019;29:606–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.04.093.
29. Schwarzenberg SJ, Georgieff MK. Advocacy for improving nutrition in the first 1000 days to support childhood development and adult health. Pediatrics. 2018;141:e20173716. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1542/peds.2017-3716
30. Widodo Y. Sumedi E. Gambaran konsumsi zat gizi anak umur 6 bulan - 12 tahun di Indonesia. Gizi Indonesia. 2013;36:143-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36457/gizindo.v36i2.142
31. Kaimila Y, Divala O, Agapova SE, Stephenson KB, Thakwalakwa C, Trehan I, Manary MJ, Maleta KM. Consumption of Animal-Source Protein is Associated with Improved Height-for-Age z Scores in Rural Malawian Children Aged 12–36 Months. Nutrients. 2019;11:480. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020480
32. Ilmani DA, Fikawati S. Nutrition Intake as a Risk Factor of Stunting in Children Aged 25–30 Months in Central Jakarta Indonesia. Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan. 2023,18:117-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2023.18.2.117-126
Published
2024-04-24
How to Cite
1.
Ratnayani R, Sunardi D, Fadilah F, Hegar B. Nutrient intake and stunting in children aged 2-5 years in a slum area of Jakarta. PI [Internet]. 24Apr.2024 [cited 20May2024];64(2):132-. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/3291
Section
Pediatric Nutrition & Metabolic Disease
Received 2022-12-28
Accepted 2024-04-24
Published 2024-04-24