Correlation of tobacco smoke exposure to intelligence quotient in preschool children

Main Article Content

Nina Natalia
Nurhayati Masloman
Jeanette C. Manoppo


Background Exposure to tobacco smoke at home happens in 29-
69% of children globally and 43% oflndonesian children. Smoke
exposure during the developmental stage may affect cognitive
abilities, as measured by intelligence quotient (IQ). There have
been few studies conducted on the correlation of tobacco smoke
exposure to IQ. This is the first study of this type in Indonesia.
Objectives To assess the correlation between tobacco smoke
exposure and IQ in preschool children and to assess the correlation
between serum cotinine levels and IQ in preschool children
exposed to tobacco smoke.
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Tuminting
district, Manado in January - May 2011. Subjects were collected by
random sampling of 3-5 year-old children. In our study, 35 children
were deemed to have been exposed to tobacco smoke by serum
cotinine ~ 0.05 ng/ml and 25 children were deemed to not have
been exposed to tobacco smoke (cotinine < 0.05 ng/ml). Results
were analyzed by t-test and simple correlation analysis using SPSS
version 17 software with a significance level of P < 0.05.
Results There was a statistically significant difference in IQ
between the two groups, with mean IQ of 106.54 in the group
exposed to tobacco smoke and mean IQ of 109.36 in the group not
exposed to tobacco smoke (P=0.01). The mean serum cotinine
level in the group with tobacco smoke exposure was 1. 77 ng/mL.
There was no correlation between the mean level of cotinine and
mean IQ in this group (r = -0.19 and P=0.14).
Conclusions The mean IQ in the group with tobacco smoke
exposure was lower than that of the group not exposed to tobacco
smoke. There was no correlation between mean serum cotinine
level and mean IQ. [Paediatr lndones. 2012;52: 106-10].

Article Details

How to Cite
Natalia N, Masloman N, Manoppo J. Correlation of tobacco smoke exposure to intelligence quotient in preschool children. PI [Internet]. 30Apr.2012 [cited 14Aug.2020];52(2):106-10. Available from:
Received 2016-08-22
Accepted 2016-08-22
Published 2012-04-30


1. Yolton K, Xu Y, Kh oury J, Succop P, Lanpher B, Dean W, et
al. Associations between secondhand smoke exposure and
sleep patterns in children. Pediatrics. 2010; 125 :261-8.
2. Kum-Nji P, Meloy L, Herrod HG. Environmental tobacco
smoke exposure: prevalence and mechanisms of causation
of infections in children. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1745-54.
3. Best D, Committee on Environmental Health, Committee
on Native American Child Health and Committee on
Adolescence. Secondhand and prenatal tobacco smoke
exposure. Pediatrics. 2009;124:1017-44.
4. Wilson KM, Klein JD, Blumkin AK, Gottlieb M, Winickoff
JP. Tobacco-smoke exposure in children who live in multiunit
housing. Pediatrics. 2011;127:85-92.
5. Bolte G, Fromme H. Socioeconomic determinants of
children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure and
family's home smoking policy. Eur J Public Health.
2008; 19:52-8.
6. Benowitz NL. Cotinine as a biomarker of environmental
tobacco smoke exposure. Epidemiol Rev. 1996;18:188-204.
7. Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of cigarette smoking. Smoking and
tobacco control monograph No 7. 2000;7:93-111.
8. Yolton K, Dietrich K, Auinger P, Lanphear BP, Hornung R.
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and cognitive
abilities among U.S. children and adolescents. Environ
Health Perspect. 2005;113:98-103.
9. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. Who is exposed to secondhand
smoke? Self-reported and serum cotinine measured exposure
in the U.S., 1999-2006. Int J Environ Res Public Health.
10. Mannino D, Caraballo R, Benowitz N, Repace J. Predictors
of cotinine levels in US children: data from the third
national health and nutrition examination survey. Chest.
2001; 120:718-24.
11. Gehring U, Leaderer BP, Heinrich J, Oldenwening M,
Giovannangelo ME, Nordling E, et al. Comparison of parental
reports of smoking and residen rial air nicotine concentrations
in children. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:766-72.
12. Bauman KE, Flewelling RL, LaPrelle J. Parental cigarette
smoking and cognitive performance of children. Health
Psycho!. 1991;70:282-8.
13. Olds D, Henderson CR, Tatelbaum R. Intellectual
impairment in children of women who smoke cigarettes
during pregnancy. Pediatrics. 1994;93 :221-7.
14. Ernst M, Moolchan ET, Robinson ML. Behavioral and neural
consequences of prenatal exposure to nicotine. J Am Acad
Child Adoles Psyc. 2001 ;40:630-41.
15. Olds D. Tobacco exposure and impaired development:
a review of evidence. Mental Retard Dev Research Rev.
16. Marano C, Schober SE, Brody DJ, Zhang C. Secondhand
tobacco smoke exposure among children and adolescents:
United States, 2003-2006. Pediatrics. 2009;124:1299-
17. Wilson SE, Kahn RS, Khoury J, Lanphear BP. The role of air
nicotine in explaining racial differences in cotinine among
tobacco-exposed children. Chest. 2007;131:856-62.
18. Johnson DL, Swank PR, Baldwin CD, McCormick D.
Adult smoking in the home environment and children's IQ.
Psychological Reports. 1999;84:149-5 4.