Comparison of maternal anxiety scores in pediatric intensive care unit and general ward parents

Main Article Content

Lie Affendi Kartikahadi
Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih
I Gusti Ayu Endah Ardjana
I Gusti Ayu Trisna Windiani


Background Hospitalization of a child is known to be a dreadful
and stressful situation for parents. One study reported that
admitting a child to a general ward caused mild anxiety to mothers,
while admitting a child to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)
caused moderate anxiety to mothers.
Objective To compare Hamilton anxiety scores of mothers whose
children were admitted to the PICU to those of mothers whose
children were admitted to the general ward.
Methods A cross-sectional study was done on mothers of
children aged 1 month-12 years. Children were admitted to
either the intensive care unit or the general ward from October
2010-January 2011. All subjects were assessed by Hamilton
anxiety scores and questioned for risk factors and other causes
of maternal anxiety. Consecutive sampling was used to allocate
the subjects. Differences were considered statistically significant
for P < 0.05.
Results Of the 72 subjects, the median Hamilton anxiety score in
mothers of children admitted to the PICU was 20.5 (interquartile
range 14-29.75), higher than that of mothers of children admitted
to the general ward (14, interquartile range 9-16.75). MannWhitney
U test revealed a statistically significant difference in
scores between the two groups (P = 0.DO1). Ancova multivariate
analysis showed the admission location to be the only significant
relationship to Hamilton anxiety score (P = 0.0001).
Conclusion Hamilton anxiety scores were higher for mothers
of children admitted to the PICU than that of mothers with
children admitted to the general ward. [Paediatr lndones.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kartikahadi L, Soetjiningsih S, Ardjana IG, Windiani IG. Comparison of maternal anxiety scores in pediatric intensive care unit and general ward parents. PI [Internet]. 30Apr.2012 [cited 16Aug.2020];52(2):95-8. Available from:
Received 2016-08-22
Accepted 2016-08-22
Published 2012-04-30


1. Woolston JL. Psychiatric aspects ofa pediatricintensive care
unit. YaleJ BiolMed.1984;57:97-110.
2. Shudy M, de Almeida ML, Lo S, Landon C, Groft S, Jenkins
TL. Impact of pediatric critical illness and injury on families: a
systematic literature review. Pediatrics. 2006; 118:S203-18.
3. Aldridge MD. Decreasing parental stress in the pediatric
intensive care unit: one unit's experience. Crit Care Nurse.
4. Board R, Ryan-Wenger N. Long-term effects of PICU
hospitalization on families with young children. Heart Lung.
5. Saied H. Stress, coping, social support and adjustment among
families of CHD children in PICU after heart surgery. [cited
2010 August l]. Available from:
6. Commodari E. Children staying in hospital: a research
on psychological stress of caregivers. Ital J Pediatr.
7. Miles MS, Funk SG. Parental stressor scale: neonatal
intensive care unit. [cited 2010 August l]. Available from~
8. Maier W, Buller R, Philipp M, Heuser I. The Hamilton
anxiety scale: reliability, validity and sensitivity to change
in anxiety and depressive disorders. J Affect Disord.
1988;1 4:61-8.
9. Prasadio T. Kecemasan clan manifestasinya. Jiwa, Indon
Psychiatr Quarter. 1995;8:105-13.
10. Basiran, S. Perbedaan skor kecemasan jamaah haji kabupaten
Klaten sebelum dan sesudah perjalanan ke Mekkah periode
1994. Jiwa, Indon Psychiatr Quarter. 1996;3 :43-7.
11. El Rais H. Gangguan kecemasan. In: Pine! JPJ, editor.
Biopsychology. 7th ed. Boston: Pearson Education; 2009. p.
12. Wise MG. Anxiety and insomnia. In: Wise MG, Rundell JR
editors. Clinical manual of psychosomatic medicine: a guide
to consultation-liaison psychiatry. 1" ed. Virginia: American
Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p. 103-19.
13. Merikangas KR. Anxiety disorders: epidemiology. In: Kaplan
HI, Sadock BJ, editors. 3th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p. 1720-8.
14. Taylor DJ, Lichstein KL, Durrence H, Reidel BW, Bush AJ.
Epidemiology of insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Sleep.
15. Hawari D. Kecemasan. In: Manajemen stres cemas clan
depresi. l" ed. Jakarta: Balai penerbit FKUI; 2002. p. 63-
83 .