Main Article Content
Objective To assess for a possible association between homocysteine level and blood pressure in small for gestational age children.
Methods This observational study was undertaken from December 2011 to April 2012 in Prof. Dr. R. D. Kandou Hospital, Manado, North Sulawesi, on children who were born small for gestational age in year 2004-2005. Data was analyzed by T-test to compare homocysteine levels in small for gestational age and normal birth weight children. Regression analysis and simple coefficient test were used to assess for an association between homocysteine levels and blood pressure in children who were small for gestational age at birth.
Results The mean homocysteine level in small for gestational age children was significantly higher than that of normal birth weight children (P<0.001). We observed no correlation between homocysteine level and systolic blood pressure in the small for gestational age group (r=0.151, P=0.189). However, there was a weak correlation between homocysteine level and diastolic blood pressure in the small for gestational age group (r=0.237, P=0.049).
Conclusion Children who were small for gestational age at birth have significantly higher mean homocysteine level than that of normal birth weight children. Higher homocysteine levels are associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in children who were small for gestational age at birth.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
2. Brattstrom L, Wilcken D. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: cause or effect? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:315-23.
3. Coffey M, Crowder G, Cheek DJ. Reducing coronary artery disease by decreasing homocysteine levels. Crit Care Nurse. 2003;23:25-30.
4. Vollset SE, Refsum H, Irgens LM , Emblem BMBM, Tverdal A, Gjessing HK, et al. Plasma total homocysteine, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Hordaland Homocysteine study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:962-8.
5. R Raijmakers MT, Zusterzeel PL, Roes EMEM, Steegers EA, Mulder TP, Peters WH. Oxidized and free whole blood thiols in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97:272-6.
6. Ronnenberg AG, Goldman MB, Chen D, Aitken IW, Willett WC, Selhub J, et al. Preconception homocysteine and B vitamin status and birth outcomes in Chinese woman. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1385-91.
7. Gennser G, Rymark P, Isberg PE. Low birth weight and risk of high blood pressure in adulthood. Br Med J. 1988;296:1498-500.
8. Falkner B, Daniels SR. Summary of the fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Hypertension. 2004;49:387-98.
9. Refsum H, Nurk E, Smith AD, Ueland PM, Gjesdal CG, Bjelland I, et al. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study: a community-based study of homocysteine, its determinants, and associations with disease. J Nutr. 2006;136:1731S-40S.
10. Franco MC, Higa EM, D’Almeida V, de Sousa FG, Sawaya AL, Fortes ZB, et al. Homocysteine and nitric oxide are related to blood pressure and vascular function in small-for-gestational-age children. Hypertension. 2007;50:396-402.
11. Martin H, Hu J, Gennser G, Norman M. Impaired endothelial function and increased carotid stiffness in 9-year-old children with low birth weight. Circulation. 2000;102:2739-44.
12. Tayama J, Munakata M, Yoshinaga K, Toyota T. Higher plasma homocysteine concentration is associated with more advanced systemic arterial stiffness and greater blood pressure response to stress in hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2006;29:403-9.
13. Mori A, Uchida N, Inomo A, Izumi S. Stiffness of systemic arteries in appropriate- and small-for-gestational-age newborn infants. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1035-41.
14. Franco MC, Christofalo DM, Sawaya AL, Ajzen SA, Sesso R. Effect low birth weight in 8- to 13-year-old children: implication in endothelial function uric acid levels. Hypertension. 2006;48:45-50.