Melatonin level and sleep disorders in adolescents

Main Article Content

Andre Inigo
Hesti Lestari
Nurhayati Masloman
Julius Lolombulan


Background Sleep disorder is defined as a disturbance in the quality and time of sleep. Decreased melatonin levels have been noted in people with sleep disorders. Melatonin is a neurohormone, produced mainly by the pineal gland, as well as a small part of the retina. Its function is to maintain normal circadian rhythms and it is related to sleep regulation in humans.
Objective To assess for a relationship between melatonin levels and sleep disorders in adolescents.
Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on students of two secondary schools in Tuminting, Manado, North Sulawesi, from May to June 2013. Subjects were obtained by consecutive sampling for a total of 44 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Subjects filled questionnaires, underwent wrist actigraphy, and provided blood specimens for examination of melatonin levels. We used descriptive and logistic regression analyses to assess for relationships between variables.
Results Thirty (68.2%) subjects experienced sleep disorders. There was a significant association between decreased melatonin levels and the higher incidence of sleep disturbances (P = 0.02).
Conclusion There is a correlation between melatonin levels in adolescents with sleep disorders. Decreased melatonin levels are associated with sleep disorders.

Article Details

How to Cite
Inigo A, Lestari H, Masloman N, Lolombulan J. Melatonin level and sleep disorders in adolescents. PI [Internet]. 31Jul.2015 [cited 18Oct.2019];55(4):215-. Available from:
Received 2015-12-02
Accepted 2015-12-02
Published 2015-07-31


1. Natalita C, Sekartini R, Poesponegoro H. Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) as a screening instrument sleep disorders in junior high school. Sari Pediatri. 2011;12:365-72.
2. Haryono A, Rindiarti A, Arianti A, Pawitri A, Ushuluddin A, Setiawati A, et al. Prevalence of sleep disorders in adolescents age 12-15 years in junior high school. Sari Pediatri. 2009;11:149-154.
3. Soetjiningsih. Pertumbuhan somatik pada remaja. In: Soetjiningsih, editor. Buku ajar tumbuh kembang remaja dan permasalahannya: 1st ed. Jakarta: CV Sagung Seto; 2004. p. 1-22.
4. Morgenthaler T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Owens J, Kapur V, Boehlecke B, et al. Practice parameters for the use of actigraphy in the assessment of sleep and sleep disorders: an update for 2007. Sleep. 2007;30:519-29.
5. Eliott P. Melatonin deficiency. Bellingham, WA: Elliott Health Care Associates. 2008. Available from:
6. Melatonin. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2005;10:326-36.
7. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Fuentes L. Melatonin: a multitasking molecule. Prog Brain Res. 2010;181:127-51.
8. Ohida T, Osaki Y, Doi Y, Tanihata T, Minowa M, Suzuki K, et al. An epidemiologic study of self-reported sleep problems among Japanese adolescents. Sleep. 2004;27:978-85.
9. Liu X, Uchiyama M, Okawa M, Kurita H. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported sleep problems among Chinese adolescents. Sleep. 2000;23:27-34.
10. Seo W, Sung H, Lee J, Koo B, Kim M, Kim S, et al. Sleep patterns and their age-related changes in elementary school children. Sleep Med. 2010;11:569-75.
11. Short MA, Gradisar M, Lack LC, Wright H, Carskadon M. The discrepancy between actigraphic and sleep diary measures of sleep in adolescents. Sleep Med. 2012;13:378-84.
12. Van den J. Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep. 2004;27:101-4.
13. Schochat T, Flint O, Tzizchinsky O. Sleep patterns, electronic media exposure and daytime sleep-related behaviours among Israeli adolescents. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:1396-400.
14. Van den J. Adolescent use of mobile phones for calling and for sending text messages after lights out: results from a prospective cohort study with a one-year follow up. Sleep. 2007;30:1220-3.
15. Praninskiene R, Dumalakiene I, Kemezys R, Mauricas M, Jucaite A. Diurnal melatonin patterns in children: ready to apply in clinical practice? Pediatr Neurol. 2012;46:70-6.
16. Brzezinski A, Vangel MG, Wurtman RJ, Norrie G, Zhdanova I, Ben-Shushan A, et al. Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: a meta-analysis. Sleep Med. 2005;9:41-50.