Overweight and menstrual disorders in girls aged 12-15 years

  • Siska Octaviani Purba Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, North Sumatera
  • Karina Sugih Arto Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, North Sumatera
  • Rina Amalia C. Saragih Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, North Sumatera
Keywords: nutritional status; menstrual disorder


Background Several studies have noted a strong association between fat distribution and menstrual disorders. Many studies have evaluated the association between nutritional status and menstrual disorders, but the results remain inconclusive.

Objective To assess for possible associations between overweight and menstrual disorders in girls aged 12-15 years.

Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in girls aged 12-15 years who had undergone menarche. Nutritional status was classified based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention curve for body mass index (BMI) as overweight (P85-P95) and normal weight (P3-<P85); those underweight (<P3) were excluded. We recorded the subjects’ BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist circumference-to-height ratio (WtHR), menstrual pain (using the visual analog scale), menstrual cycle length, menstrual period duration, and bleeding volume (estimated by the daily number of menstrual pads used) and compared these variables between normal weight and overweight subjects.

Results Of 73 subjects, 32.9% were overweight and 67.1% had normal weight. There were significant associations between overweight and menstrual disorders (prevalence ratio, PR=1.304; P=0.027), irregular menstrual cycle (PR=4.696; P<0.001), abnormal menstrual period duration (PR=2.45; P<0.001), and excessive bleeding volume (PR=9.528; P<0.001). No significant association was found between overweight and menstrual pain (P=0.227). BMI, WC, and WtHR were significantly higher in girls with irregularity and abnormal duration of menstrual cycles, but not in girls with excessive menstrual pain.

Conclusion  Overweight is significantly associated with menstrual disorders, irregular menstrual cycle, abnormal menstrual period duration, and abnormal volume of menstrual loss, but not with menstrual pain.


1. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents and adults. Lancet. 2017;390:2627–42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3.
2. Wijga AH, Scholtens S, Bemelmans WJE, de Jongste JC, Kerkhof M, Schipper M, et al. Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-10-184.
3. Pizzi MA, Vroman K. Childhood obesity: effects on children’s participation, mental health, and psychosocial development. Occup Ther Health Care.2013;27:99–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/07380577.2013.784839.
4. Hruby A, Hu FB. The epidemiology of obesity: a big picture. Pharmacoeconomics. 2015;33:673–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40273-014-0243-x.
5. Pandita A, Sharma D, Pandita D, Pawar S, Tariq M, Kaul A. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2016; 9:83-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S90783.
6. Antono SD. Perbedaan prestasi belajar antara siswa obesitas dan tidak obesitas pada siswa sekolah dasar di kota Kediri. J Ilmu Kesehatan. 2017;5:84-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32831/jik.v5i2.138.
7. Dya NM, Adiningsih S. Hubungan antara status gizi dengan siklus menstruasi pada siswa MAN 1 Lamongan. Amerta Nutr. 2019:310-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20473/amnt.v3i4.2019.310-314.
8. Williams CE, Creighton SM. Menstrual disorders in adolescents: review of current practice. Horm Res Paediatr. 2012;78:135-43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000342822.
9. Lasquety MG, Rodriguez D, Fehring RJ. The influence of BMI levels on phases of the menstrual cycle and presumed ovulation. Linacre Q. 2012;79:451-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/002436312804827082.
10. Wei S, Schmidt MD, Dwyer T, Norman RJ, Venn AJ. Obesity and menstrual irregularity: associations with SHBG, testosterone, and insulin. Obesity. 2009;17:1070-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.641.
11. Yeung EH, Zhang C, Albert PS, Mumford SL, Ye A, Perkins NJ, et al. Adiposity and sex hormones across the menstrual cycle: The BioCycle study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37:237–43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2012.9.
12. Sawitri DPH, Wibawa A, Tianing NW, Primayanti IDA. The correlation between body mass index and menstrual cycle disorder in medical students of Udayana University. Bali Anatomy J. 2020;3:19-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36675/baj.v3i1.39.
13. Singh M, Rajoura OP, Honnakamble RA. Menstrual patterns and problems in association with body mass index among adolescent school girls. J Family Med Prim Care. 2019;8:2855-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_474_19.
14. Ganesh R, Ilona L, Fadil R. Relationship between body mass index with menstrual cycle in senior high school students. Althea Med J. 2015;2:555-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15850/amj.v2n4.640.
15. Dars S, Sayed K, Yousufzai Z. Relationship of menstrual irregularities to BMI and nutritional status in adolescent girls. Pak J Med Sci. 2014;30:141-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.301.3949.
16. Committee on Adolescent Health Care. Menstruation in girls and adolescents: using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign. Committee Opinion. 2015;651. [cited 2022 January 12]. Available from https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2015/12/menstruation-in-girls-and-adolescents-using-the-menstrual-cycle-as-a-vital-sign.
17. Susilo DH. Hubungan obesitas dengan gangguan siklus menstruasi. Oksitosin: J Ilmiah Kebidanan. 2015;2:49-55. [cited 2021 March 28]. Available from https://journal.ibrahimy.ac.id/index.php/oksitosin/article/view/423.
18. Yucel G, Kendirci M, Gul U. Menstrual characteristics and related problems in 9-18-year- old Turkish school girls. J Pediatr Adol Gynecol. 2018;31:350-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2018.03.002.
19. Agarwal A, Venkat A. Questionnaire study on menstrual disorder in adolescent girls in Singapore. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:365-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2009.02.005.
20. Parker MA, Sneddon AE, Arbon P. The menstrual disorder of teenagers (MDOT) study: determining typical menstrual patterns and menstrual disturbance in a large population-based study of Australian teenagers. BJOG. 2010;117:185-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02407.x.
21. Chan SS, Yiu KW, Yuen PM, Sahota DS, Chung TK. Menstrual problems and health-seeking behaviour in Hong Kong Chinese girls. Hong Kong Med J. 2009;15:18-23. PMID: 19197092.
22. Tayebi N, Yazdanpanahi Z, Yektatalab S, Pourahmad S, Akbarzadeh M. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and menstrual disorder at different ages of menarche and sex hormones. J Natl Med Assoc. 2017;1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2017.10.007.
23. Milla SY, Mudayatiningsih S, Dewi N. Hubungan obesitas dengan gangguan menstruasi pada remaja putri di kelurahan Tlogomas. Nursing News. 2018;3:72-82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33366/nn.v3i1.754.
24. Amgain K, Neupane S. Effect of BMI and food habits on menstrual characteristics among adolescent girls. Europasian J Med Sci. 2019;1:53-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46405/ejms.v1i1.35.
25. Taheri R, Ardekani FM, Shahraki HR, Esfahani NH, Hajjahmadi S. Nutritional status and anthropometric indices in relation to menstrual disorder: a cross-sectional study. J Nutr Metab. 2020:5980685. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5980685.
26. Kulshrestha S, Durrani AM. Prevalence of menstrual disorder and their association with physical activity in adolescent girls of Aligarh City. Int J Health Sci Res. 2019;9:384-93.
27. Karout N, Hawai SM, Altuwaijri S. Prevalence and pattern of menstrual disorder among Lebanese nursing students. East Mediterr Health J. 2012;18:346-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26719/2012.18.4.346.
28. Kafaei-Atrian M, Mohebbi-Dehnavi Z, Sayadi L, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Karimian-Taheri Z, Afshar MThe relationship between the duration of menstrual bleeding and obesity?related anthropometric indices in students. J Edu Health Promot. 2019;8:81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_24_18.
29. Kumalasari MLF. Correlation between body mass index with menstrual cycle on female adolescent. Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainable Health Promotion; 2018 Oct 9-11; Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur. Surabaya: Faculty of Psychology and Health, UIN Sunan Ampel; 2018. p.100-3. [cited 2021 March 28]. Available from https://proceedings.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/ICOSHPRO/article/view/22.
30. Rad M, Sabzevary MT, Dehnavi ZM. Association between menstrual disorder and obesity-related anthropometric indices in female high school students: a cross-sectional study. Int J School Health. 2018;5:e65716. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5812/intjsh.65716.
31. Al-Kashif MML. Interrelation between menstrual problems and body mass index among undergraduate female students: cross sectional study. Asian J Sci Res. 2020;13:164-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/ajsr.2020.164.169.
32. Karanth S, Liya SR. Prevalence and risk factors for dysmenorrhoea among nursing student and its impact on their quality of life. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2018;7:2661-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20182483.
How to Cite
Purba S, Arto K, Saragih R. Overweight and menstrual disorders in girls aged 12-15 years. PI [Internet]. 14Dec.2023 [cited 22Feb.2024];63(6):499-05. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/2942
Pediatric Endocrinology
Received 2022-01-11
Accepted 2023-12-14
Published 2023-12-14