Main Article Content
Salmonella typhi strains has made it necessary to evaluate new
agents for the treatment of typhoid fever. Azithromycin has in vitro
activity against many enteric pathogens, including Salmonella spp.
However, there is not enough evidence to compare azithromycin
with first-line antibiotics currently used.
Objective To analyze the efficacy of azithromycin compared
to that of chloramphenicol as a first-line drug in the therapy of
uncomplicated typhoid fever in children.
Methods We conducted a randomized open trial from November
2011 to March 2012 on 60 children aged 2-13 years with
uncomplicated typhoid fever. Subjects were randomly assigned
to receive either azithromycin (10 mg/kgBW /day orally once
daily) or chloramphenicol (100 mg/kgBW/day orally in four
divided doses) for 7 days. Efficacy was measured by recording
clinical cures and fever clearance times. Data was analyzed with
Chi-square and T-tests.
Results All of 30 patients in the azithromycin group and 28
out of the 30 patients in the chloramphenicol group were cured
(P= 0.246). Fever clearance time was shorter in the azithromycin
group (mean 37.9 (SD 32.75) hours, 95%CI 25.67 to 50.13)
than in the chloramphenicol group (mean 49 (SD 45.83) hours,
95%CI 3 1.89 to 66.11).
Conclusions The efficacy of azithromycin is similar to that of
choramphenicol in the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever
in children. Azithromycin has shorter fever clearance time and
higher cure rate compared to those of chloramphenicol, although
these results are n ot statistically significant.
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