External risk factors associated with language disorders in children

Main Article Content

Lydia Wangke
Wenny Victory
Gregory Joey
Novie Homenta Rampengan
Hesti Lestari

Abstract

Background Children with language delay have deficits in the ability to learn and use language, either expressive and/or receptive despite otherwise normal development. Language delay could be influenced by either internal factors (within the child) and external factors (from the environment). Timely identification and modification of these risk factors can allow early intervention to reduce child disability and are associated with better long-term outcomes.


Objective To identify possible risk factors related to language delay in children, such as bilingualism, socioeconomic status, maternal and caregiver education level, use of digital media, absence of story reading sessions, breastfeeding patterns, siblings, parenting methods, and maternal occupation.


Methods This observational, analytic study included 102 children aged 24-36 months from four daycare centers in Manado, North Sulawesi, selected by cluster random sampling. Parents were interviewed to gather demographic information of child age, gender, presence of older siblings, maternal occupation, socioeconomic status, maternal/caregiver educational level, use of digital media, absence of story reading sessions, breastfeeding patterns, parenting methods, and bilingual environment. Children’s language development was assessed by the Capute Scales.


Results Multivariate analysis revealed 2 factors significantly associated with increased risk of language delay; namely absence of storybook reading (OR=0.16; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.72; P=0.017) and bilingualism (OR=12.58; 95%CI 1.57 to 100.81; P=0.017).


Conclusion Story reading sessions is associated with decreased risk of language delay, shile bilingualism is associatd with increased risk of language delay.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Wangke L, Victory W, Joey G, Rampengan N, Lestari H. External risk factors associated with language disorders in children. PI [Internet]. 28May2021 [cited 6Dec.2021];61(3):133-0. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/2557
Section
Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics
Received 2020-12-11
Accepted 2021-05-28
Published 2021-05-28

References

1. Judarwanto W. Epidemiologi gangguan bicara pada anak. Jakarta: Departemen Rehabilitasi Medik; 2006. p.114-5
2. Hartanto F, Selina H, Zuhriah, Fitra S. Pengaruh perkembangan bahasa terhadap perkembangan kognitif anak usia 1-3 tahun. Sari Pediatri. 2011;12:386-90. DOI: 10.14238/sp12.6.2011.386-90.
3. Thezar D, Masloman N, Mandei JM. Hubungan lingkar kepala dan perkembangan bayi di Poli Bayi dan Tumbuh Kembang RSUP Prof. DR. R.D.Kandou. eClinic. 2016;9:1-6. DOI: 10.35790/ecl.4.1.2016.11001
3.
4. Hawa VV, Spanoudis G. Toddlers with delayed expressive language: an overview of the characteristics, risk factors and language outcomes. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35:400-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2013.10.027.
5. Desmarais C, Sylvestre A, Meyer F, Bairati I, Rouleau N. Systematic review of the literature on characteristics of late-talking toddlers. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2008;43:361-89. DOI: 10.1080/13682820701546854.
6. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for speech and language delay in preschool children: recommendation statement. Pediatrics. 2006;117;497-501. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-2734.
7. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Pedoman pelayanan stimulasi, deteksi, dan intervensi dini tumbuh kembang anak di tingkat pelayanan kesehatan dasar. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI , 2012. p.17-24.
8. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. M-CHAT-R scoring instructions. [cited 2021 Jan 22]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/autism/case-modules/screening/10-scoring.html#:~:text=If%20a%20child's%20total%20score,evaluation%20and%20early%20intervention%20services.
9. Accardo PJ, Capute AJ. The capute scales: cognitive adaptive test/clinical linguistic & auditory milestone scale (CAT/CLAMS). Baltimore: Paul. H. Brookes Publishing Co; 2005. p.9-28.
10. Gubernur Sulawesi Utara. Peraturan Gubernur Sulawesi Utara No. 48 tahun 2017 tentang upah minimum Provinsi Sulawesi Utara tahun 2018. [cited 2021 Jan 22]. Available from: https://jdih.sulutprov.go.id/file/peraturan/PERGUB%2048_2017.pdf.
11. Presiden Republik Indonesia. Undang-undang Republik Indonesia no. 13 tahun 2003 tentang Ketenagakerjaan. [cited 2021 Mar 24]. Available from: https://kemenperin.go.id/kompetensi/UU_13_2003.pdf.
12. Lancy, D. The anthropology of childhood: Cherubs, chattel, changelings. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press; 2008. p.12-26. ISBN-13: 978-0521887731.
13. Orellana MF, Dorner L, Pulido, L. Accessing assets: Immigrant youth’s work as family translator or “para-phrasers.”. Social Problems 2003;50:5005-5024. DOI: 10.1525/SP.2003.50.4.505.
13.
14. Sajedi F, Habibi E, Hatamizadeh N, Shahshahanipour S, Afzali HM. Early storybook reading and childhood development: a cross-sectional study in iran. F1000Research.2018;7:411. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.14078.1.
15. Mokhtar NH, Halim MF, Kamarulzaman SZ. The effectiveness of story reading in enhancing communicative skills. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2011;18:163-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.05.024.
16. Lamuningtyas YA. Pemberian dongeng untuk meningkatkan kemampuan bahasa pada anak usia prasekolah. [thesis]. [Malang (East Java)]: Universitas Muhammadiyah; 2018.
17. Thordardottir E. The relationship between bilingual exposure and vovabulary development. International Journal of Bilingualism. 2015;15:426. DOI: 10.1177/1367006911403202.
18. Chaimay B. Risk Factors Associated with Language Development Problems in Childhood. J Med Assoc Thai. 2016; 89: 1080-6. PMID: 16881445.
19. Callan E. Critical review: does bilingualism slow language development in children? [thesis]. [Ontario (CAN)]: Western University; 2018.
20.
Fisch SM. Children’s learning from television. [cited 2021 Mar 24]. Available from: https://www.br-online.de/jugend/izi/english/publication/televizion/18_2005_E/fisch.pdf.
21.
Anderson RD, Pempek TA. Television and very young children. Am Behav Sci 2005; 48, 505–522. DOI:10.1177/0002764204271506.
22.
Zimmerman FJ, Christakis DA. Children’s television viewing and cognitive outcomes: a longitudinal analysis of national data. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005;159:619–25. DOI: 10.1001/archpedi.159.7.619
23. Oddy WH, Li JH, Robinson M, Whitehouse JO. The long term effects of breastfeeding on development.J Pediatr. 2015; 89:109-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.10.020.
24. Walker A. Breast milk as the gold standard for protective nutrients. J Pediatr. 2010;156:S3-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.11.021.
25. Jonsdottir OH, Thorsdottir I, Gunnlaugsson G, Fewtrell MS, Hibberd P, Kleinman RE. Exclusive breastfeeding and developmental and behavioral status in early childhood. Nutrients. 2013;5:4414-28. DOI: 10.3390/nu5114414.
26. Mondal N, Bhat BV, Plakkal N, Thulasingam M, Ajayan P, Poorna DR. Prevalence and risk factors of speech and language delay in children less than three years of age. J Compr Ped. 2016;7:e33173. DOI: 10.17795/compreped-33173.
27. Tan S, Mangunatmadja I, Wiguna T. Risk factors for delayed speech in children aged 1-2 years. Paediatr Indon. 2019;59:55-62. DOI: 10.14238/pi59.2.2019.55-62.
28. Suparmiati A, Ismail D, Sitaresmi MN. Hubungan ibu bekerja dengan keterlambatan bicara pada anak. Sari Pediatri. 2013;14:288-91. DOI: 10.14238/sp14.5.2013.288-91.
29. Bridges K, Hoff E. Older sibling influences on the language environment and language development of toddlers in bilingual homes. Appl Psycholinguist. 2014;35:225–41. DOI: 10.1017/S0142716412000379.
30. Zukow-Goldring P. Sibling caregiving. In: Bornstein MH, editor. Handbook of parenting: Vol 3: Being and becoming a parent. 2nd. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2002. p. 253–86.
31. Kurnia V, Tjondronegoro P, Wahyuningrum E. Correlation of parenting styles in language development in preschoolers. Journal of Nursing Science. 2019;7:1-12, DOI: 10.21776/ub.jik.2019.007.01.8.
32. Hindman AH, Skibbe LE, Foster TD. Exploring the variety of parental talk during shared book reading and its contributions to preschool language and literacy: Evidence from the early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort. Reading and Writing. 2014; 27:287-313. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-013-9445-4.