Prevalence and risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents

  • Muzal Kadim Universitas Indonesia
  • Aida Rosita Tantri Universitas Indonesia
  • Muhammad Indera Ramadani Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: adolescents, irritable bowel syndrome, risk factors, Rome IV criteria, prevalence


Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children and adults. The IBS is diagnosed by symptoms that fulfill the Rome IV criteria. This condition can impact quality of life, especially in adolescents.

Objectives To investigate the prevalence of IBS in high school students and analyze its risk factors.

Methods This cross-sectional study was done with e-questionnaires from Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire on Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (R4PDQ). Students from high school and occupational schools age 14 to 18-years-old in Jakarta were included in this study. Possible risk factors for IBS were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test for bivariate analysis and logistic regression for multivariate analysis.

Results Of 210 subjects, 10 (4.8%) had IBS. The IBS-M and IBS-C subtypes were more common than IBS-D. Gastrointestinal infection history was significantly associated with IBS (OR 7.1; 95%CI 1.7 to 29.3; P=0.013). Other factors such as gender, corporal punishment, asthma, spicy and fatty food consumption, as well as socioeconomic status were not significantly associated with IBS (P>0.05).  

Conclusion The prevalence of IBS in adolescents is 4.8%. History of gastrointestinal infection is a risk factor for IBS.

Author Biographies

Muzal Kadim, Universitas Indonesia

Departement of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Aida Rosita Tantri, Universitas Indonesia

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Muhammad Indera Ramadani, Universitas Indonesia

Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.


1. Lovell RM, Ford AC. Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10:712-21.e4. DOI:10.1016/j.cgh.2012.02.029.
2. Chogle A, Mintjens S, Saps M. Pediatric IBS: an overview on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Ann. 2014;43:e76-82. DOI: 10.3928/00904481-20140325-08.
3. Fillekes L, Prayogo A, Alatas FS, Hegar B. Irritable bowel syndrome and its associated factors in adolescents. Pediatr Indones. 2014;54:344–50. DOI: 10.14238/pi54.6.2014.344-50
4. Hyams JS, Di Lorenzo C, Saps M, Shulman RJ, Staiano A, Van Tilburg M. Functional Disorders: Children and Adolescents. Gastroenterology. 2016;150: S0016-5085(16)00181-5. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.015.
5. Devanarayana NM, Rajindrajith S. Irritable bowel syndrome in children: current knowledge, challenges and opportunities. World J Gastroenterol. 2018;24:2211–35. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i21.2211.
6. Data SMP, SMA, dan SMK di DKI Jakarta [Internet]. Dinas Komunikasi, Informatika, dan Statistika Provinsi DKI Jakarta. 2015. [cited 2020 Jan 28]. Available from:
7. Sperber AD. Rome translation project [Internet]. Rome Foundation. 2017. [cited 2020 Jul 29]. Available from:
8. Bujang MA, Omar ED, Baharum NA. A review on sample size determination for Cronbach’s alpha test: a simple guide for researchers. Malays J Med Sci. 2018;25:85–99. DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.9.
9. Oswari H, Alatas FS, Hegar B, Cheng W, Pramadyani A, Benninga MA, et al. Functional abdominal pain disorders in adolescents in Indonesia and their association with family related stress. BMC Pediatr. 2019;19:342. DOI: 10.1186/s12887-019-1682-5.
10. Devanarayana NM, Rajindrajith S, Pathmeswaran A, Abegunasekara C, Gunawardena NK, Benninga MA. Epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents in Asia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015;60:792–8. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000714.
11. Gwee KA, Ghoshal UC, Chen M. Irritable bowel syndrome in Asia: pathogenesis, natural history, epidemiology, and management. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;33:99–110. DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13987.
12. Kesuma Y. Hubungan masalah perilaku pada remaja dengan irritable bowel syndrome. Sari Pediatr. 2017;18:492–7. DOI:10.14238/sp18.6.2017.492-7.
13. Son YJ, Jun EY, Park JH. Prevalence and risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome in Korean adolescent girls: a school-based study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46:76–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.07.006.
14. Schulte-Körne G. Mental health problems in a achool setting in children and adolescents. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016 Mar 18;113:183–90. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2016.0183.
15. Panicker R, Arifhodzic N, Al Ahmad M, Ali SA. Association and symptom characteristics of irritable bowel syndrome among bronchial asthma patients in Kuwait. Ann Thorac Med. 2010;5:37–42. DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.58958.
16. Amra B, Hoseini-Asl MK, Rahmani AR, Golshan M, Mohamad-Zadeh Z. Correlation between asthma and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Iran in 2003. Respir Med. 2006;100:110–4. DOI: 10.1016/j.rmed.2005.03.036.
17. Deshmukh F, Vasudevan A, Mengalie E. Association between irritable bowel syndrome and asthma: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Ann Gastroenterol. 2019;32:570–7. DOI: 10.20524/aog.2019.0426.
18. Tan TK, Chen AC, Lin CL, Shen TC, Li TC, Wei CC. Preschoolers with allergic diseases have an increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome when reaching school age. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64:26–30. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001219.
19. McKenzie YA, Bowyer RK, Leach H, Gulia P, Horobin J, O'Sullivan NA, et al. British Dietetic Association systematic review and evidence- based practice guidelines for the dietary management of irritable bowel syndrome in adults (2016 update). J Hum Nutr Diet. 2016;29:549–75. DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12385.
20. Hayes P, Corish C, O’Mahony E, Quigley EMM. A dietary survey of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014;27(Suppl2):36–47. DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12114.
21. Khayyatzadeh SS, Kazemi-Bajestani SMR, Mirmousavi SJ, Heshmati M, Khoshmohabbat S, Ferns GA, et al. Dietary behaviors in relation to prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescent girls. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;33:404–10. DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13908.
22. Esmaillzadeh A, Keshteli AH, Hajishafiee M, Feizi A, Feinle-Bisset C, Adibi P. Consumption of spicy foods and the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:6465–71. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i38.6465.
23. Gonlachanvit S. Are rice and spicy diet good for functional gastrointestinal disorders? J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;16:131–8. DOI:10.5056/jnm.2010.16.2.131.
24. Bortolotti M, Porta S. Effect of red pepper on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: preliminary study. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:3288–95. DOI: 10.1007/s10620-011-1740-9.
25. Howell S, Talley NJ, Quine S, Poulton R. The irritable bowel syndrome has origins in the childhood socioeconomic environment. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:1572–8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.40188.x.
26. Adeniyi OF, Lesi OA, Olatona FA, Esezobor CI, Ikobah JM. Irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents in Lagos. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;28:93. DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2017.28.93.11512.
27. Barbara G, Grover M, Bercik P, Corsetti M, Ghoshal UC, Ohman L, et al. Rome foundation working team report on post-infection irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2019;156:46–58. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.07.011.
28. Parida PK, Mishra D, Pati GK, Nath P, Dash KR, Behera SK, et al. A prospective study on incidence, risk factors, and validation of a risk score for post-infection irritable bowel syndrome in coastal eastern India. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2019;38:134–42. DOI: 10.1007/s12664-019-00943-w.
29. Spiller R, Garsed K. Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1979–88. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2009.02.074.
How to Cite
Kadim M, Tantri A, Ramadani M. Prevalence and risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents. PI [Internet]. 27Oct.2021 [cited 16Jun.2024];61(6):299-05. Available from:
Pediatric Gastrohepatology
Received 2020-11-11
Accepted 2021-10-27
Published 2021-10-27