Stimulation and cognitive function in short-stature preschoolers

Main Article Content

Ika Citra Dewi
Rini Sekartini
Hartono Gunardi
Asrawati Nurdin

Abstract

Background Normal-height children generally have better cognitive function than growth-stunted, short-stature children. Children’s cognitive function reportedly improves with stimulation. However, a correlation between stimulation and cognitive function in children with a history of short stature remains unclear.


Objective To assess correlation between stimulation and cognitive function in normal-height vs. short-stature preschool children.


Methods A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was performed in four sub-district areas in Jakarta. Preschool-aged children and their primary caregivers from previous studies on short stature were eligible for inclusion. An Indonesian version of a questionnaire was used to assess stimulation. A psychologist assessed verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and full-scale IQ (FSIQ) with the Indonesian version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and Chi-square tests, and P values <0.05 were considered to be significant.


Results Of 62 subjects, 64.5% had normal height and 35.5% had short stature. Both normal-height and short-stature children had similar IQ outcome and history of stimulation. The stimulation was significantly correlated with FSIQ in normal-height children (r= 0.316; P=0.047), but not short-stature children (r=0.049; P=0.828). However, the percentage differences in VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ between normal-height and short-stature children were not significant (P=0.409, 0.119 and 0.877, respectively).


Conclusion  There is a significant correlation between stimulation and IQ in normal-height children. Short-stature preschoolers were not worse in terms of IQ than normal-height preschoolers. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to provide regular and adequate stimulation to their young children.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Dewi I, Sekartini R, Gunardi H, Nurdin A. Stimulation and cognitive function in short-stature preschoolers. PI [Internet]. 2Mar.2021 [cited 22Apr.2021];61(2):74-1. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/2503
Section
Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics
Author Biography

Ika Citra Dewi, Department of Child Health, Medical School, University of Sumatera Utara

Department of Child Health
Received 2020-10-16
Accepted 2021-03-02
Published 2021-03-02

References

1. Adnyana IGANS. Perkembangan kognitif. In: Soetjiningsih, Ranuh IGNG, editor. Tumbuh kembang anak. 2nd ed. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC; 2012. p. 17-24.
2. Nguyen PH, DiGirolama AM, Gonzalez-Casanova I, Young M, Kim N, Nguyen S, et al. Influences of early child nutritional status and home learning environment on child development. Matern Child Nutr. 2018;14:e12648. DOI: 10.1111/mcn.12468.
3. Nouchi R, Kawashima R. Improving cognitive function from children to old age: a systematic review of recent smart ageing intervention studies. Advances in Neuroscience. 2014:1-15. DOI: 10.1155/2014/235479.
4. Gu H, Wang L, Liu L, Luo X, Wang J, Hou F, et al. A gradient relationship between low birth weight and IQ: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:18035. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-18234-9.
5. Horta BL, Loret de Mola C, Victora CG. Breastfeeding and intelligence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr. 2015;104:14-9. DOI: 10.1111/apa.13139.
6. Nyaradi A, Li J, Hickling S, Foster J, Oddy WH. The role of nutrition in children’s neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:97. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00097.
7. Palejwala MH, Fine JG. Gender differences in latent cognitive abilities in children aged 2 to 7. Intelligence. 2015;48:96-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.intell.2014.11.004.
8. Lehmann JYK, Nuevo-Chiquero A, Vidal-Fernandez M. The early origins birth order differences in children’s outcomes and parental behavior. J Hum Resources. 2018;53:123-56. DOI: 10.3368/jhr.53.1.0816-8177.
9. Yosafzai AK, Obradović J, Rasheed MA, Rizvi A, Portilla XA, Tirado-Strayer N, et al. Effects of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on children’s development and growth at age 4 years in a disadvantaged population in Pakistan: a longitudinal follow-up of a cluster-randomised factorial eff ectiveness trial. Lancet Glob Health 2016; 4: e548–58. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30100-0.
10. Mills-Koonce WR, Willoughby MT, Zvara B, Barnett M, Gustaffson H, Cox MJ, et al. Mother’s and father’s sensitivity and children’s cognitive development in low-income, rural families. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2015;38:1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2015.01.001.
11. Erola J, Jalonen S, Lehti H. Parental education, class and income over early life course and children’s achievement. Res Soc Stratif Mobility. 2016;44:33-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.rssm.2016.01.003.
12. Soetjiningsih. Stimulasi perkembangan anak. In: Soetjiningsih, Ranuh IGNG, editor. Tumbuh kembang anak. 2nd ed. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC; 2012. p. 204-12.
13. Schneider N, Geiser E, Gosomiu LM, Wibowo Y, Gentile-Rapinett G, Tedjasaputra MS, et al. A combined dietary and cognitive intervention in 3-5-year-old children in Indonesia: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients. 2018;10:1394. DOI: 10.3390/nu10101394.
14. Nurliyana AR, Shariff ZM, Taib MNM, Gan WY, Tan KA. Early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years in Malaysia: a study protocol. BMC Pediatr. 2016;16:160. DOI: 10.1186/s12887-016-0700-0.
15. Vonaesch P, Tondeur L, Breurec S, Bata P, Nguyen LBL, Frank T, et al. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA). PLoS One. 2017;12:e0182363. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182363.
16. Torlesse H, Cronin AA, Sebayang SK, Nandy R. Determinants of stunting in Indonesian children: evidence from a cross-sectional survey indicate a prominent role for the water, sanitation and hygiene sector in stunting reduction. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:669. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3339-8.
17. Sekartini R. Longitudinal study on the effect of multiple micronutrients supplementation on haemoglobin level of 8 to 10 month-old Indonesian children. 2014. [Unpublished data].
18. Nurdin A, Sekartini R, Gunardi H, Soedjatmiko, Medise B, Kadim M, et al. Sociodemographic risk factors and environmental enteric dysfunction on preschool age children with short stature. Paper presented at: 11th Malaysia-Indonesia-Brunei (MIB) Medical Sciences Conference; 2019 Sept 19-20; Jakarta, Indonesia.
19. World Health Organization. Growth reference data for 5-19 years. https://www.who.int/toolkits/growth-reference-data-for-5to19-years. Accesed 21st Nov 2018.
20. Asroi, Hidayat S. Memahami variabel dan instrumen penelitian. Tangerang: Pustaka Mandiri; 2016. p. 1-24.
21. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Pedoman pelaksanaan stimulasi, deteksi dan intervensi dini tumbuh kembang anak di tingkat pelayanan kesehatan dasar. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2016. p. 1-63.
22. Staf LPSP3 Fakultas Psikologi UI. Manual Test WPPSI. Depok: LPSP3 Fakultas Psikologi UI. p. 1-67.
23. Thorndike EL. Useful statistical and measurement concepts. In: Sattler JM, editor. Assessment of children. 3rd ed. San Diego: San Diego State University; 1987. p. 12-36.
24. Walker SP, Chang SM, Wright A, Osmond C, Grantham-McGregor SM. Early childhood stunting is associated with lower developmental levels in the subsequent generation of children. J Nutr. 2015;145:823-8. DOI: 10.3945/jn.114.200261.
25. Warsito O, Khomsan A, Hernawati N, Anwar F. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia. Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6:451-7. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2012.6.5.451.
26. Onifade OM, Otegbayo JA, Akinyemi JO, Oyedele EA, Akinlade AR. Nutritional status as a determinant of cognitive development among preschool children in South-Western Nigeria. Brit Food J. 2016;118:1568-78. DOI:10.1108/BFJ-11-2015-0445.
27. Prendergast AJ, Humphrey JH. The stunting syndrome in developing countries. Paediatr Int Child Health. 2014;34:250-65. DOI: 10.1179/2046905514Y.0000000158.
28. Hamadani JD, Tofail F, Huda SN, Alam DS, Ridout DA, Attanasio O, et al. Cognitive deficit and poverty in the first 5 years of childhood in Bangladesh. Pediatr. 2014;134:e1001-8. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-0694.