Main Article Content
in the world. Although WHO develops an algorithm for
diagnosing pneumonia, many clinicians still under or overdiagnose
Objective To assess associations of cough, tachypnea, fever, and
chest indrawing with pneumonia in children.
Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using medical
records of children aged less than 5 year old with one or more clinical
signs of pneumonia such as cough, fever, tachypnea, and chest
indrawing in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan from January
2009 to December 2011. Pneumonia was diagnosed by pediatric
respirologists based on history-taking, and physical, laboratory
and radiology examinations. Patients with incomplete data
were excluded. Data was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate
Results Of 420 subjects, the majority were aged 3 to 23 months
and there were more boys than girls. Clinical signs assessed for
were cough (82.9%), tachypnea (31 %), fever (79.3%), and chest
indrawing (40.2%). Age < 24 months (OR 2.563; 95% CI 1.497
to 4.387), cough (OR 2.274; 95% CI 1.042 to 4.960), tachypnea
(OR 2.249; 95% CI 1.282 to 3.947), and chest indrawing (OR
6.993; 95% CI 4.017 to 12.173) were significant predictors for
Conclusion Age less than 24 months, cough, tachypnea, and
chest indrawing are significantly associated with pneumonia.
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