A young girl with suspected encephalitis caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in Indonesia

Main Article Content

Anita Juniatiningsih
Darmawan B Setyanto
Vivi Setiawaty
Endang R Sedyaningsih


A previously healthy two-year-old girl was admitted to the Emergency Unit of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMH) Jakarta, on March 23, 2006 with a deterioration of consciousness since four days before admission. She was referred by a district hospital with a working diagnosis of suspect encephalitis, gastroenteritis, and febrile convulsion. History taken from her parents revealed that since eight days before admission she had a mild fever and cough, without rhinorrhea. Her appetite, defecation and urination were normal. Patient was taken to a clinic, where she was diagnosed as having an upper respiratory tract infection, and was given three kinds of medicine (i.e., antipyretic, expectorant and antibiotic).

Article Details

How to Cite
Juniatiningsih A, Setyanto D, Setiawaty V, Sedyaningsih E. A young girl with suspected encephalitis caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in Indonesia. PI [Internet]. 14Jul.2020 [cited 27Jan.2021];50(1):62-. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/2449
Infection & Tropical Pediatrics
Received 2020-07-14
Published 2020-07-14


1. World Health Organization. Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) reported to WHO [homepage on the internet]. c2009 [cited 2009 Apr 1]. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2009_03_30/en/index.html.
2. World Health Organization. Current WHO phase of pandemic alert [homepage on the internet]. c2009 [cited 2009 May 19]. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/phase/en/index.html.
3. Chan PK. Outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in Hongkong in 1997. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:S58-64.
4. Hien TT, Liem NT, Dung NT, San LT, Mai PP, Chau NV, et al. Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1179-88.
5. Chotpitayasunondh T, Ungchusak K, Hanshaoworakul W, Chunsuthiwat S, Sawanpanyalert P, Kijphati R. Human disease from influenza A (H5N1), Thailand, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:201-8.
6. The writing committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) consultation on human influenza A/H5. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) infections in humans. N Engl J Med. 2004;353:1374-85.
7. World Health Organization. Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1). c2009 [cited 2009 May 19]. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2009_05_15/en/index.html.
8. National Institute of Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia. Unpublished records, 2009.
9. Behrens G, Stoll M. Pathogenesis and Immunology. [cited 2006 Jun 6]. Available from: http://www.influenzareportcom/ir/pathogen_htm.
10. Petrosino AL. Cytokine storm and the influenza pandemic. [cited 2006 June 9]. Available from: http://www.cytokinestorm.com.
11. To K, Chan P, Lee W, Lam W, Wong K, et al. Pathology of fatal human infection associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. J Med Virol. 2001;63:242-6.
12. Kuiken T, Rimmelzwaan G, Amerongen G, Osterhaus A. Pathology of human influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis). Vet Pathol. 2003;40:304-10.
13. M Morishima T, Togashi T, Yokota S, Okuno Y, Miyazaki C, Tashiro M, et al. Encephalitis and encephalopathy associated with an influenza epidemic in Japan. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:512-7.
14. Steininger C, Popow-Kraupp T, Laferi H, Seiser A, Godl I, Djamshidian S, et al. Acute encephalopathy associated with influenza A virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:567-74.
15. Studahl M. Influenza virus and CNS manifestations. J Clin Virol. 2003;28:225-32.
16. M Maricih SM, Neul JL, Lotze TE, Cazacu AC, Uyeki TM, Demmler GJ, et al. Neurologic complications associated with influenza A in children during the 2003-2004 influenza season in Houston, Texas. Pediatrics. 2004;114:626-33.
17. Sugaya N. Influenza-associated encephalopathy in Japan: pathogenesis and treatment. Pediatr Inter. 2000;42:215-8.