Diet and estradiol level in adolescent girls

  • Ririn Hariani Department of Nutrition, Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta
  • Saptawati Bardosono Department of Nutrition, University of Indonesia Medical School, Jakarta
  • Ratna Djuwita Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Community Health, University of Indonesia, Jakarta
  • Noorwati Sutandyo Department of Medical Oncology, Dharmais Cancer Hospital, Jakarta
  • Melani Kumala Department of Nutrition, Tarumanegara University Medical School, Jakarta
  • Ali Sungkar Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Indonesia Medical School/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta
  • Rini Sekartini Department of Child Health, University of Indonesia Medical School/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta
Keywords: dietary intake, fat intake, estradiol level, adolescent girls, breast carcinogenesis


Background Nutritional intake in adolescent girls in Indonesia has been well studied, but there has been little study on its influence on serum estradiol levels. A high estradiol level has been associated with higher risk of breast carcinogenesis.
Objective To evaluate the influence of dietary factors on serum estradiol concentration in adolescent girls.
Methods A community-based survey was conducted in female junior high school students in Jakarta from January 2014 to January 2015. Nutritional intake was assessed by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), which included the intake of total energy (kcal), carbohydrate (g), protein (g), fat (g), fiber (g), and phytoestrogen (g). Based on the Indonesian recommended daily allowance (RDA), energy and nutrient intakes were categorized as minimal (<70%), low (70-99.9%), normal (100-129.9%), and high (≥130%). Serum estradiol levels were measured during the follicular phase using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results A total of 189 girls aged 13-15 years were enrolled from 8 junior high schools across the municipalities of Jakarta. Twenty-eight (14.8%) subjects were overweight or obese. Median estradiol level was 41.83 (range 13.14-136.5) pg/mL. Serum estradiol level was significantly correlated with energy, protein, and fat intake. Estradiol level was also significantly associated with carbohydrate (P=0.030) and fat (P=0.036) intake status. Multivariate analysis revealed that intake of energy, protein, and fat, as well as body mass index (BMI) were independent predictors of estradiol levels. However, due to its importance as energy source, we included carbohydrate intake in the final equation to predict estradiol level as follows: E2 = 60.723 – 0.053 (energy) + 0.185 (carbohydrate) + 0.483 (protein) + 0.491 (fat) – 1.081 (BMI).
Conclusion Serum estradiol levels in adolescent girls aged 13-15 years are influenced by diet, especially fat intake. Estradiol levels can be predicted from energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake, as well as BMI. [Paediatr Indones. 2016;56:134-8.].


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How to Cite
Hariani R, Bardosono S, Djuwita R, Sutandyo N, Kumala M, Sungkar A, Sekartini R. Diet and estradiol level in adolescent girls. PI [Internet]. 1Jul.2016 [cited 29Jan.2023];56(3):134-. Available from:
Pediatric Nutrition & Metabolic Disease
Received 2016-08-18
Accepted 2016-08-18
Published 2016-07-01