Complications of drowning: A case report

  • Felicia Anita Wijaya Ikatan Dokter Indonesia
  • I Gde Doddy Kurnia Indrawan
Keywords: bronchopneumonia, case report, drowning, mechanical ventilation, pulmonary edema


Unintentional drowning is the sixth most common cause of accidental death, accounting for 4,086 deaths (1.4 per 100,000) in the United States in 2007.1 In children, drowning is the second leading cause of injury-related death, and those aged 1-3 years have the highest rate of drowning.2 More than 1,400 pediatric drownings were reported in the United States in 2008.3 Many drowning deaths are due to lack of supervision in the bathtub, unprotected access to a pool, or lack of swimming skills.3 For every death by drowning, six children are hospitalized for drowning, and up to 10% of survivors experience severe brain damage.2


1. Richards DB, Jacquet GA. Drowning. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, Biros MH, Ling LJ, Danzl DF, et al., editors. Rosen’s emergency medicine concepts and clinical practice. 8th ed. Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2014. p. 1941-4.
2. Treitz M, Bunik M, Fox D. Ambulatory and office pediatrics. In: Hay WW, Levin MJ, Deterding RR, Abzug MJ, editors. Current diagnosis and treatment pediatrics. 23rd ed. New York City: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016. p. 238-327.
3. Tsai W, Fine KS. Poisoning, burns and injury prevention. In: Marino BS, Fine KS, editors. Blueprints Pediatrics. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013. p. 21-358.
4. Lee KJ. The acutely ill or injured child. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, editors. Nelson essentials of pediatrics. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p. 43-136.
5. Caglar D, Quan L. Drowning and submersion injury. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Geme III JWS, Schor NF, Behrman RE, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 20th ed. Vol. 1. North York: Elsevier Saunders; 2016. p. 74561-8.
6. Restrepo CS, Ortiz C, Singh AK, Sannananja B. Near-drowning: epidemiology, pathophysiology and imaging findings. J Trauma Care. 2017;3:1026.
7. Mott TF, Latimer KM. Prevention and treatment of drowning. Am Fam Physician. 2016;93:576-82.
8. World Health Organization. Drowning. 2018, January 15 [cited 2019, July 31]. Available from:
How to Cite
Wijaya F, Indrawan IG. Complications of drowning: A case report. PI [Internet]. 11Oct.2019 [cited 19Jul.2024];59(5):284-. Available from:
Case Report
Received 2019-04-03
Accepted 2019-10-08
Published 2019-10-11