Serum S100B and intelligence in children with Down syndrome

  • Nurul Noviarisa Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University/ Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang
  • Eva Chundrayetti Department of Child Health, Universitas Andalas Medical School/Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang, West Sumatra
  • Gustina Lubis Department of Child Health, Universitas Andalas Medical School/Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang, West Sumatra
Keywords: Down syndrome, S100B, intelligence level


Background Down syndrome is characterized by physical and mental retardation and caused by chromosome 21 (Hsa21) abnormalities. The S100B is a protein that is overproduced in Down syndrome due to overexpression of chromosome 21 genes. Comorbidities caused by S100B in Down syndrome are cognitive deterioration and early onset of dementia.

Objective To assess for a possible association between S100B protein and intelligence levels in children with Down syndrome.

Method This cross-sectional study included students in a special needs school in Padang, West Sumatera, who had the characteristic clinical features of Down syndrome and trisomy 21 by chromosome analysis. Examination of S100B levels was carried out using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured using the 4th edition of the Wechlser Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) method.

Results A total of 39 children with Down syndrome participated in the study. There were 25 children with mild mental retardation and 15 children with moderate-severe mental retardation. The mean S100B levels were not significantly different between groups [479.1 (SD 204) pg/mL in the mild mental retardation group and 458.7 (SD 158) pg/mL in the moderate-severe mental retardation group; P > 0.05]. The mean S100B level was significantly higher in subjects aged ≤ 10 years than in those aged > 10 years [566.9 (SD 210.0) pg/mL and 434.4 (SD 167.2) pg/mL, respectively (P<0.05)].

Conclusion There is no association between S100B and intelligence levels in children with Down syndrome. There is a significant association between higher S100B levels and younger age in children with Down syndrome.


1. Malak R, Kotwicka M, Krawczyk-Wasielewska A, Mojs E, Samborski W. Motor skills, cognitive development and balance functions of children with Down syndrome. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20:803-6.
2. Khalil A, Pandya A. Screening for Down syndrome. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2006;56:205-11.
3. Brockmeyer D. Down Syndrome and craniovertebral instability. Topic review and treatment recommendations. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1999; 31: 71-7.
4. Ram G, Chinen J. Infections and immunodeficiency in Down syndrome. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;164:9-16.
5. Dutta S, Nandagopal K, Gangopadhyay PK, Mukhopadhyay K. Molecular aspects of Down syndrome. Indian Pediatr. 2005;42:339-44.
6. Wiseman FK, Alford KA, Tybulewicz V, Fisher EM. Down syndrome--recent progress and future prospects. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:75-83.
7. Idris R, Anggoro B, Hartamto H. Penderita sindrom Down berdasarkan analisis kromosom di Laboratorium Biologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia antara tahun 1992-2004. Jakarta: Profesi Medika; 2006. p. 3-5.
8. Chundrayetti E. Hubungan Polimorfisme gen DYRK1A SNP rs 2154545 dan rs8139276 dan protein TAU dengan retardasi mental pada sindrom Down [dissertation]. [Padang]: Universitas Andalas; 2017.
9. Netto CB, Portela LV, Fereirra CT, Kieling C, Matte U, Felix T, et al. Ontogenetic changes in serum S100B in Down syndrome patients. Clin Biochem. 2005;38:433-5.
10. Donato R, Sorci G, Riuzzi F, Arcuri C, Bianchi R, Brozzi F, et al. S100B's double life: intracellular regulator and extracellular signal. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:1008-22.
11. Azmitia PMW, Shapiro L, McGoey LB, Azmitia EC. Role of S100b overexpression in Down syndrome: translational and human studies. Workshop on Cognition in Down Syndrome Molecular, Cellular and Behavioral Features and the Promise of Pharmacotherapies. Washington, DC: Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome; 2013. p. 22.
12. Johnson D. Listening to the views of those involved in the inclusion of pupils with Down’s syndrome into mainstream schools. Support for Learning. 2006:21:24–9.
13. Rachidi M, Lopes C. Molecular and cellular mechanisms elucidating neurocognitive basis of functional impairments associated with intellectual disability in Down Syndrome. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2010;115:83–112.
14. Esposito G, Imitola J, Lu J, De Filippis D, Scuderi C, Ganesh VS, et al. Genomic and functional profiling of human Down syndrome neural progenitors implicates S100B and aquaporin 4 in cell injury. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:440–57.
15. Kato K, Suzuki F, Kurobe N, Okajima K, Ogasawara N, Nagaya M, et al. Enhancement of S-100 beta protein in blood of patients with Down’s syndrome. J Mol Neurosci. 1990;2:109–13.
16. Netto CB, Siqueira IR, Fochesatto C, Portela LV, da Purificação Tavares M, Souza DO, et al. S100B content and SOD activity in amniotic fluid of pregnancies with Down syndrome. Clin Biochem. 2004;37:134-7.
17. de Boussard CN, Lundin A, Karlstedt D, Edman G, Bartfai A, Borg J. S100 and cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Med. 2005;37:53-7.
18. Pham N, Fazio V, Cucullo L, Teng Q, Biberthaler P, Bazarian JJ, et al. Correction: Extracranial sources of S100B do not affect serum levels. PLoS One. 2010;5:10.
19. Yardan T, Erenler AK, Baydin A, Aydin K, Cokluk C. Usefulness of S100B Protein in Neurological Disorders. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011;61:276-81.
20. Lam V, Albrecht MA, Takechi R, Giles C, James AP, Foster JK, et al. The serum concentration of the calcium binding protein S100B is positively associated with cognitive performance in older adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013;5:61.
21. Donato R. S100: a multigenic family of calcium-modulated proteins of the EF-hand type with intracellular and extracellular functional roles. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;33:637–68.
22. Pedersen A, Diedrich M, Kaestner F, Koelkebeck K, Ohrmann P, Ponath G, et al. Memory impairment correlates with increased S100B serum concentrations in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1789-92.
23. Zhai J, Zhang Q, Cheng L, Chen M, Wang K, Liu Y, et al. Risk variants in the S100B gene, associated with elevated S100B levels, are also associated with visuospatial disability of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res. 2011:217;363-8.
24. Li YC, Xi CH, An YF, Dong WH, Zhou M. Perioperative inflammatory response and protein S-100B concentrations – relationship with post-operative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012:56;595-600.
How to Cite
Noviarisa N, Chundrayetti E, Lubis G. Serum S100B and intelligence in children with Down syndrome. PI [Internet]. 26Jun.2019 [cited 20Jun.2024];59(3):125-. Available from:
Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics
Received 2019-02-25
Accepted 2019-06-26
Published 2019-06-26