Maternal attitude and child interest in various play activities before and after mother-child play sessions
Background Play stimulates children's growth and development. When mothers and their children play, a positive attitude from the mother and adequate interest from the child is required. Little is known about the play activities that effectively stimulate such positive maternal attitude and child interest.
Objective To assess for associations between various play activities with maternal attitude and child interest before and after mother-child play sessions.
Methods Pre-post intervention questionnaires were distributed to mothers before and after playing with their children. Children were aged 1-5 years, from two play sites (in Surabaya and Makassar), and included using purposive sampling. Eight types of toys/play activities were provided. The allocated time for answering the 17-question survey was 15 minutes. Average scores before and after the mother-child play sessions were analyzed using paired T-test.
Results We collected 264 valid questionnaires, 235 in Surabaya and 29 in Makassar. Improvement of maternal attitude after the mother-child play session was found in 132 mothers [mean diff. 0.07 (SD 0.42); 95%CI -0.117 to -0.015; P=0.011]. Play activities with significant improvements in maternal attitude were jigsaw puzzle [mean diff. 0.09 (SD 0.66); 95% CI 0.007 to 0.167;P= 0.033), Lego blocks (mean diff.-0.10 (SD 0.69); 95%CI -0.186 to -0.018; P=0.017), mini-gardening (mean diff. -0.15 (SD 0.75); 95%CI -0.238 to -0.057; P=0.002), sandbox [mean diff.-0.24 (SD 0.83); 95%CI -0.339 to â€“ 0.138; P < 0.001], fishing [mean diff. -0.17 (SD 0.68); 95%CI -0.253 to -0.088; P < 0.001], and animal figurines [mean diff. -0.21 (SD 0.75); 95%CI -0.3 to -0.117;P <0.001]. Improvement of child interest was found in 161 children [mean diff. 0.20 (SD 0.52); 95%CI -0.264 to -0.116; P<0.001]. Play activities with significant improvements in child interest were jigsaw puzzle, Lego blocks, origami, mini-gardening, fishing, and animal figurines.
Conclusion Some mother-child play activities, but not all, significantly improve both maternal attitude and child interest toward play.
2. Chugani H. Biological basis of emotions: brain systems and brain development. In: Warhol J, Shelov S, editors. New perspectives in early emotional development. Miami: Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Institute; 1998. p. 5-16.
3. Lillard AS, Lerner MD, Hopkins EJ, Dore RA, Smith ED, Palmquist CM. The impact of pretend play on children's development: a review of the evidence. Psychol Bull. 2013;139:1-34.
4. Fasulo A, Shukla J, Bennett S. Find the hidden object. Understanding play in psychological assessments. Front Psychol. 2017;8:323.
5. Landry SH. The role of parents in early childhood learning. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, editors. Tremblay RE, topic ed. Encyclopedia on early childhood development [Internet]. Montreal: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development and Strategic Knowledge Cluster on Early Child Development; 2008 [updated 2014 Dec; cited 2017 Jun 18]; [about 6 p.]. Available from: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/parenting-skills/according-experts/role-parents-early-childhood-learning.
6. Ginsburg KR, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Communications, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. Pediatrics. 2007;119:182-91.
7. Aznar A, Tenenbaum HR. Parent-child positive touch: gender, age, and task differences. J Nonverbal Behav. 2016;40:317-33.
8. Pickett W, Marlenga B, Berg RL. Parental knowledge of child development and the assignment of tractor work to children. Pediatrics. 2003;112:e11-6.
9. DeJong A. Working mothers: cognitive and behavioral effects on children. J Undergrad Res. 2010;8:75-82.
10. Milteer RM, Ginsburg KR, Council on Communications and Media, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e204-10.
11. Badan Pusat Statistik. Upah minimum regional/propinsi 1997-2016. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik; 2017.
12. Schafer EJ, Campo S, Colaizy TT, Mulder PJ, Breheny P, Ashida S. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Public Health Nutr. 2017:1-10.
13. Kristianto Y, Sulistyarini T. Faktor yang mempengaruhi perilaku ibu dalam pemberian makanan pendamping ASI pada bayi umur 6-36 bulan. Jurnal Penelitian STIKES Kediri. 2013;6:99-108.
14. Seale H, Sitaresmi MN, Atthobari J, Heywood AE, Kaur R, MacIntyre RC, et.al. Knowledge and attitudes towards rotavirus diarrhea and the vaccine amongst healthcare providers in Yogyakarta Indonesia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:528.
15. Andreass B. Origami art as a means of facilitating learning. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2011;11:32-6.
16. Empson SB, Turner E. The emergence of multiplicative thinking in children's solutions to paper folding tasks. J Math Behav. 2006;25:46-56.
17. Huntsinger CS, Jose PE, Luo Z. Parental facilitation of early mathematics and reading skills and knowledge through encouragement of home-based activities. Early Child Res Q. 2016;37:1-16.
18. Levine SC, Ratliff KR, Huttenlocher J, Cannon J. Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers' spatial transformation skill. Dev Psychol. 2012;48:530-42.
19. Jarrett O, French-Lee S, Bulunuz N, Bulunuz M. Play in the sandpit: A university and a child-care center collaborate in facilitated-action research. Am J Play 2010; 3: 221-37.
20. Burdette HL, Whitaker RC. Resurrecting free play in young children: Looking beyond fitness and fatness to attention, affiliation and affect. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159:46-50.
21. Luchss A, Fikus M. A comparative study of active play on differently designed playgrounds. J Adventure Educ Outdoor Learn 2013; 13:206-22.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.