Measles and its Problems. A Clinical Analysis of Hospitalized Patients Under 5 Years of Age

Main Article Content

Muzief Munir
I. Mustadjab
F. H. Wulur


Two hundred and sixty one cases of measles under 5 years of age admitted to the Pediatric Ward of Gunung Wenang Hospital Manado, lrulonesia, were analyzed.

It is clearly evident tlwt measles in this country indeed, is one of the important child health problems, especially among those under 5 years of age. From this analysis it was found thoJ only 40 out of 261 cases or 15% suffered without any complications, but the remtJining 85% experienced complications.

The younger the children suffering from measles, the more frequent would be the complications.

The worse the nutritional status of the chNdren, the higher the rate of complications and mortality. In patients with a normal body weight, 52% were found not to have any complications. But the rate of complications increased in underweight and marasmic cases.

Bronchopneumonia with or without gastroenteritis, was found more frequently
in marasmic cases.

The mortality rate was 13.8%- And it was highest among the marasmic cases, being 26%, while in normal body weight children it was only 6%.

Measles encephalophathia was found in only 18 out of the 261 cases or 7% and mainly associated with bronchopneumonia and gastroenteritis.

From this study, it is felt that further field studies should be carried out in this country in an attempt to determine the real magnitude of measles problems in the community.

Article Details

How to Cite
Munir M, Mustadjab I, Wulur FH. Measles and its Problems. A Clinical Analysis of Hospitalized Patients Under 5 Years of Age. PI [Internet]. 30Apr.1982 [cited 21Jul.2019];22(3-4):49-4. Available from:
Infection & Tropical Pediatrics
Received 2017-08-24
Accepted 2017-08-24
Published 1982-04-30


Acute measles encephaliitis in children with immunosuppression. Pediatr. 2 : 232 (1977) .
2. APPELBAUM, E.; DOLGOPM, V.B. and DOLGIN, J.: Measles Encephalitis. J. Pediatr. 77 : 25 ( 1949).
3. BEISEL, R.B. : Magnitude of the host nutritional responses to infection. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1236 (1977) .
4. BROWN, R.E. and KATZ, M.: Antigenic stimuilation in undernourished children. East. Afr. Med. J. 42 : 221 (1965)
5. DICK, B.; SMITH, T . and KIPPS A. : A minimum age for measles vaccine administration -to coloured children. E. Afr. Mcd. J. 49: 1951 (1975).
6. FORBES, C.E. and SCHEIFELE, D.W. : The management of measles on Nairobi. East Afr. Med. J. 3: 159-173 (1973).
7. FREEDMAN, A.L.: Immunization againts measles. Med. J. Au&t. 3 : 230 ( 1968).
8. GEEFHYUSEN, J.; KOSEN. E.U.; KATZ, J.; IPP, T. and METZ, J.: Im·
paired cellular immunity in Kwahiormed with improvement after therapy. Br. J. 4: 527 (1971) .
9. GIBBS E.L.; CARPENTER, P.R. and SPIES, H.W. : EEg abnormalities in uncomplicated children diseases. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 171: 1950 (1959).
10. GREENBERG, M.; PELLITERI, 0. and EINSTEIN, D.l . : Measles encephalitis I. Prophylactdc effect of Gamma Globulin. J. Pediatr. 46:642 (1955).
11. GREENBERG, M.; PELLITERI. 0. and EINSTEIN D.J.: Measles Encephalitis II. Treatment with Gamma Globulin. J. Med. 46 : 648 (1955) 12. KA.RELITZ, S.; CHA.NNY, C.C. and MATHEWS, Z.E. : The prophylaxis and treatment of bacterial complications of measles w1ith Benzethecil and Aqueous Proerin Penicillin G. }. Pediatr. 44: 357 (1954).
13. MILLER, D.L.: Frequency of complication of measlles. Br. Med. J. 2 : 75 (1964).
14. MORLEY, D.; MARTIN, W.J. and ALLEN, E. : Measles ·in East and Central Africa. East. Afr. Med. J. 12 : 497 (1967).
15. MORLEY, D.: Severe measles in the Tropics. Br. Mcd. J. 1 : 297 (1969) .
16. MURPHY J.V. and JANIS, E. J.: Measles virus, an opportunistic invader of the centra l nervous system in children. Neurology, 25 : 354 (1975).
17. OLSON, R.W. and HODGES, G.R. : Measles Pneumonia. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 4 : 363 (1975) .
18. SCRIMACHAW. N.S.; SALOMON, J .B.; BRUCH, N.A. and GORDON J.G .: Studies of diarrhoeal disease in central America. VIII measles, diarrhoea and nutritiona! deficiency in rural Guatemala. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 15 : 625 (1966).
19. WARNER, J.O. and MARSHALL, W.C.: Cripping lung disease after measles and adenovirus infection. Br. J. Dis. Chest. 70 : 89 (1976) .
20. WEINSTEIN, L.: Failure of chemotherapy to prevent the bacteriail complications of measles. New Eng. J. Med. 253 : 679 (1955).
21. WILLIAMS, A.O. and OSOTIMETHIN, B. : Autopsy study of Measles in Ibadan Nigeria. Ghana. Med. J. 9 : 23 (1970).
22. YASSIN, M.W.; GIRGIS, N.J .; ABDEL WAHAB. K.S.E.; EL-MASRY, N.A. and ABDULELA, A.H. : Mea lcs Encephalitis. J] . Egypt. Publ. Hcallh Assoc. 4 : 326 (1969).