Main Article Content
Background In recent decades, girls have experienced menarche at earlier ages, which may have negative effects on health. Exposure to audio-visual media and other factors may influence the age at menarche, although past studies have produced inconsistent results.
Objective To assess for relationships between the age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure, socio-economic status, nutritional status, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction in adolescent girls.
Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2015 in students from two integrated Islamic junior high schools in Medan, North Sumatera. There were 216 students who met the inclusion criteria: aged 10-16 years and experienced menarche. They were asked to fill out questionnaires that had been previously validated, regarding their history of exposure to audio-visual media, physical activity, and psychosocial dysfunction. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests in order to assess for relationships between audio-visual media exposure and other potential factors with the age at menarche.
Results Of 261 female students at the two schools, 216 had undergone menarche, with a mean age at menarche of 11.6 (SD 1.13) years. There was no significant relationship between age at menarche and audio-visual media exposure (P=0.68). Also, there were no significant relationships between factors such as socio-economic and psychosocial status with age at menarche (P=0.64 and P=0.28, respectively). However, there were significant relationships between earlier age at menarche and overweight/obese nutritional status (P=0.02) as well as low physical activity (P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low physical activity had the strongest influence on early menarche (RP=2.40; 95%CI 0.92 to 6.24).
Conclusion Age at menarche is not significantly associated with sexual content of audio-visual media exposure. However, there were significant relationships between earlier age at menarche and obese/overweight nutritional status as well as low physical activity.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
2. Badan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Riset Kesehatan Dasar/ RISKESDAS 2010. Departemen kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2010. p. 175-85.
3. Dattani MT, Hindmarsh PC. Normal and abnormal puberty. In: Brook CGD, Clayton PE, Brown RS, editors. Clinical pediatric endocrinology. 5th ed. London: Blackwell Publishing; 1995. p. 183-209.
4. Styne DM. Normal growth and pubertal development. In: Sanfilippo JS, Muram D, Dewhurst J, Lee PA, editors. Pediatric and adolescent gynecology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia WB Saunders Company; 2002. p. 2345-55.
5. Ekerbicer HC, Celik M, Kiran H, Kiran G. Age at menarch in Turkish adolescents in Kahramanmaras: Eastern Mediterranian region of Turkey. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2007;12:289-93.
6. Golub MS, Collman GW, Foster PM, Kimmel CA, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Reiter EO, et al. Public health implications of altered puberty timing. Pediatrics. 2008;121:218-30.
7. Karapanou O, Papadimitriou A. Determinants of menarche. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:115.
8. Indriyastuti HI, Hakimi M, Ismail, D, Hubungan Riwayat Menonton Audio Visual Dengan Usia Menarche Pada Siswi Di SLTP Kecamatan Kebumen Kabupaten Kebumen Tahun 2011. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Keperawatan. Vol 11 no 2. 2015
9. Sinaga SEN. Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan status menarche di SMP X Rangkasbitung. COPING Ners J. 2015;3:34-43.
10. Brown JD, Halpern CT, L’Engle KL. Mass media as a sexual super peer for early maturing girls. J Adolesc Health. 2005;36:420–7.
11. Saxena R. Impact of socio-economic status on age at menarche. Int J Multdis Appr Stud. 2014;1:76-82.
12. Ofuya ZM. The age at menarche in Nigerian adolescents from two different socioeconomic classes. J Health Allied Sci. 2007;6:1-4.
13. Bagga A, Kulkarni S. Age at menarche and secular trend in Maharashtrian (Indian) girls. Acta Biol Szeged. 2000;44:53-7.
14. Olivia D, Deliana M, Supriatmo, Hakimi, Lubis SM. Body mass index and age of menarche in young girls. Pediatric Indones. 2012;52:309-12.
15. Gaudineau A, Ehlinger V, Vayssiere C, Jouret B, Arnaud C, Godeau E. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:175.
16. Roupas ND, Georgopoulos NA. Menstrual function in sports. Hormones. 2011;10:104-16.
17. Corwin EJ. Reproduksi wanita. In: Corwin EJ, editor. Buku saku patofisiologi; 3rd ed. Jakarta: EGC; 2009. p.122-9.