Main Article Content
Coronary heart disease is presently one of the leading causes of death In adults in many countries, including in Indonesia. It is well known that elevated levels of cholesterol in children are closely associated with hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease in adult life. This study was conducted in an attempt to find a preliminary insight of the magnitude of the problem of hypercholesterolemia In children In Indonesia as a developing country. The blood lipid levels of 54 preadolescent boys from well-Io-do families were analyzed. Two-third of those children were shown to have elevated blood cholesterol level, and even one third or 16 out of 54 preadolescents boys investigated suffered from hypercholesterolemia. We conclude that elevated blood cholesterol level is frequently found among large-framed and obese Indonesian children.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
2. Keys A. Taylor HL. Blackburn H et al. Mortality and coronary heart disease among men studied for 23 years. Arch Int Med. 1971;128:201-4.
3. Tyroler HA, Heyden S. Bartel A et al. Blood pressure and cholesterol as coronary heart disease risk factors. Arch Int Mod 1971;128,907-14.
4. Kannel W B . Castelli WP, Gordon T et al. Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins and risk for coronary heart disease. The Framingham study. Ann 1m Med 1971 ;74: 1-12.
5. Keys A, Aravanis C, Blackburn H et al. Probability of middle age men developing coronary heart disease in five years. Circulation 1972;45:815-28.
6. Kannel WB. The role of cholesterol in atherogenesis. Med Clin North Am. 1974;58:363-79.
7. McGill He Jr. Fatty streaks in the coronary arteries and aorta. J Lab Invest 1968;18:560-4.
a Nader PRJ Taras HL, Salis IF. Patterson TL. Adult heart disease prevention in childhood: a national survey of paediatrician's practices and attitudes. Pediatrics 1987; 79:843-50.
9. Newman WP, Freedman OS, Voors AW et al. Relationship of serum lipoprotein levels and systemic blood pressure to early atherosclerosis. The Bogalusa Heart Study. New Engl Med 1986;314:138-44.
10. Lauer RM, Lee J, Clarke WR. Factors affecting the relationship between childhood and adult cholesterol levels. The Muscatine study. Pediatrics 1988;82:309-18.
11. Lee J, Lauer RM, Clark WR. Lipoprotein in the progeny of young men with coronary artery disease. Children with increase risk. Pediatrics 1986,8:330-7.
12. Laskarzewski P, Morison JA, de Groot I et al. Lipid and Iipoprotein [Tacking in 108 children over a four-year-period. Pediatrics 1986, 78:330-7.
13. Craig WY, Palomaki GE. Johnson AM. Haddow JE. Cigarette smoking-associated changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in the 8- to 1 9-year old group. A metaanalysis. Pediatric 1990;85: 155-8.
14. Rosaline S Gibson. Principles of nutrition assessment. Oxford University Press 1990.
15. Godin G, Shephard RJ. A simple method to assess exercise bahavior in the community. Can ] Appl Sport Sci. 1985;3:141-6.
16. Garcia RE, Moodie OS. Routine cholesterol surveillance in childhood. Pediatrics 1989,84:751-5.
17. Goff DC Jr. Donker Ge A. Ragan JD Jr. Cholesterol screening in pediatric practice. Pediatrics 1991; Sa: 250-8.
18 American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Indications for choleslerol testing in children. Pediatric 1989;83: 141-2.
19. Wong NO, Hei TK, Qaqundah Py et al. Television viewing and pediatric hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics 1992; 90:75-9.
20. Myerson UA. Santanello NC. Pediatric lipid screening based on criteria of high risk family history fails to identify two-third of high risk children. Circulation 1 988; 78:382.
21. Khoury P. Morison JA. Kelly K. Meilies M. Horvitz R , Glueck CJ. Clustering and interrelationship of coronary heart disease risk factors in school children, age 6-19. Am J EpidemioI. 1980;112:524-38.
22. Freedman OS. Burke GL, Harsha DW et al. Relationship of changes in obesity to serum lipid and lipoprotein changes in childhood and adolescence. JAMA. 1985; 254:515-20.
2J. Smoak CG, Burke CL, Webber LS, Harsha OW. Srinivasan SR, Berenson CS. Relation of obesity to clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and young adults. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125:364-72.
24. Wauigney WA. Harsha OW, Srinivasan SR, Webber LS, Brenson CS. Increasing impact of obesity on serum lipids and lipoproteins in young adults. The Bologusa heart study. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:2017-22.
25. Williams DR Going SB. Lohman TG, et al. Body fatness and risk for elevated blood pressure-serum lipoprotein ratios in children and adolescents. Am J Publ Hlth. 1992;82:358-63.
26. Hubert HB, Feinlcy M, McNamara PM, Castell WP. Obesity as independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: A 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968-77.
27. Craig SB, Bandini LG, Lichtenstein S, Schaefer EJ, Dietz WH. Impact of physical activity on lipids, lipoprotein, and blood pressure in preadolescent girls. Pediatrics 1996;98:389-95.
28. Thorlan WC, Gillaim TB. Comparison of serum lipids between habitually high and low active preadolescent males. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 1981; 13:316.
29. YamamotoA. Horibe H. Sawada S, et at. Serum lipid level in elementary and junior high school children and their relationship to relative weight. Pre Med 1988; 17:93-108.
30. Macek M. Bell D. Rutenfranz J, et al. A comparison of coronary risk factors in groups of trained and untrained adolescents. Eur J App Physio11989; 58:577-82.
31. Salls JF, Patterson TL, Buono MJ, Nader PE. Relation of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity to cardiovascular disease and risk factors in children and adult. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;127:933-41.