Risk factors of childhood leukemia

Main Article Content

Paulina K. Bangun
Bidasari Lubis
Sri Sofyani
Nelly Rosdiana
Olga R. Siregar

Abstract

Background The incidence of childhood leukemia has increased
annually. Recent studies have shown that childhood leukemia is
initiated in utero, and have focused on prenatal risk factors such
as birth weight and parental age. Exposure to pesticides and
radiation, as well as parental smoking, breastfeeding, and the
number of older siblings have also been sugges ted as risk factors
for childhood leukemia.
Objective To evaluate possible risk factors for childhood leukemia,
including birth weight, parental age, and other risk factors.
Methods This case-con trol study was conducted from October
2011 to February 2012 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan .
Case subjects were children aged below 18 years and diagnosed
with leukemia. Control subjects were children aged below 18
years who were diagnosed with any non-cancerous acute illnesses
in this hospital, and individually matched for age and gen der to
the case subject group. Patients and parents were asked to fill a
structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using conditional
logistic regression .
Results A total of 140 subjects were eligible, with 70 subjects in
each group. Birth weight 2: 4000 g and maternal age 2:35 years
were significant risk factors with OR 10.13 (95%CI 1.124 to 91.2 7)
and OR 4.98 (95%CI 1.276 to 19.445), respectively. Paternal age
of 2:35 years was not a significant risk factor. Exposure to pesticides
was also noted as another significant risk factor (OR= 6.66; 95%CI
2.021 to 21.966) .
Conclusion High birth weight, advan ced maternal age, and
exposure to pesticides are risk factors of childhood leukemia.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Bangun P, Lubis B, Sofyani S, Rosdiana N, Siregar O. Risk factors of childhood leukemia. PI [Internet]. 30Dec.2014 [cited 14Aug.2020];54(6):358-4. Available from: https://paediatricaindonesiana.org/index.php/paediatrica-indonesiana/article/view/1239
Section
Articles
Received 2017-02-01
Accepted 2017-02-01
Published 2014-12-30

References

1. SIOP-ICCCPO. Global childhood cancer organizations launch early detection campaign to save thousands of children’s lives. [Cited 2012 May 20]; Available from: http://siop-asia.com/en/news-letters/41-siop-icccpo-pressrelease-2012-02-15.html
2. Belson M, Kingsley B, Holmes A. Risk factors for acute leukemia in children: a review. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:138-45.
3. World Health Organization. Incidence of childhood leukemia. [Cited 2011 January 11]. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/ENHIS.org
4. Milne E, Laurvick CL, Blair E, Bower C, de Klerk N. Fetal growth and acute childhood leukemia: looking beyond birth weight. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:151-9.
5. Hjalgrim LL, Westergaard T, Rostgaard K, Schmlegelow K, Melbye M, Hjalgrim H, et al. Birth weight as a risk factor for childhood leukemia: a meta-analysis of 18 epidemiologic studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:724-35.
6. Caughey RW, Michels KB. Birth weight and childhood leukemia: a meta-analysis and review of the current evidence. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2658-70.
7. Reynolds P, Von Behren J, Elkin EP. Birth characteristics and leukemia in young children. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155:603-13.
8. McKinney PA, Juszczak E, Findlay E, Smith K, Thomson CS. Pre- and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukaemia and other malignancies: a Scottish case control study. Br J Cancer. 1999;80:1844-51.
9. Ross JA, Perentesis JP, Robison LL, Davies SM. Big babies and infant leukemia: a role for insulin-like growth factor-1? Cancer Causes Control. 1996;7:553-9.
10. Murray L, McCarron P, Baille K, Middleton R, Davey Smith G, Dempsey S, et al. Association of early life factors and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood: historical cohort study. Br J Cancer. 2002; 86:356-61.
11. Johnson KJ, Carozza SE, Chow EJ, Fox EE, Horel S, McLaughlin CC, et al. Parental age and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis. Epidemiology. 2009;20:475-83.
12. Yip BH, Pawitan Y, Czene K. Parental age and risk of childhood cancers: a population-based cohort study from Sweden. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:1495-503.
13. Schuz J, Kaatsch P, Kaletsch U, Meinert R, Michaelis J. Association of childhood cancer with factors related to pregnancy and birth. Int J Epidemiol. 1999;28:631-9.
14. Spector LS, Puumala SE, Carozza SE, Chow EJ, Fox EE, Horel S, et al. Cancer risk among children with very low birth weights. Pediatrics. 2009;124:96-104.
15. Paltiel O, Harlap S, Deutsch L, Knaanie A, Massalha S, Tiram E, et al. Birth weight and other risk factors for acute leukemia in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:1057-64.
16. Hjalgrim LL, Rostgaard K, Hjalgrim H, Westergaard T, Thomassen H, Forestier E, et al. Birth weight and risk for childhood leukemia in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Iceland. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:1549-56.
17. Johnson KJ, Soler JT, Puumala SE, Ross JA, Spector LG. Parental and infant characteristics and childhood leukemia in Minnesota. BMC Pediatrics. 2008;8:1-10.
18. Petridou E, Skalkidou A, Dessypris N, Moustaki M, Mantzoros C, Spanos E, et al. Endogenous risk factors for childhood leukemia in relation to the IGF system (Greece). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:765-71.
19. Schuz J, Forman MR. Birthweight by gestational age and childhood cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18:655-63.
20. McLaughlin CC, Baptiste MS, Schymura MJ, Nasca PC, Zdeb MS. Birth weight, maternal weight and childhood leukemia. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1738-44.
21. Maule MM, Vizzini L, Czene K, Akre O, Richiardi L. How the effect of maternal age on the risk of childhood leukemia changed over time in Sweden, 1960-2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:299-302.
22. Maule MM, Merletti F, Pastore G, Magnani C, Richiardi L. Effects of maternal age and cohort of birth on incidence time trends of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:347-51.
23. Podvin D, Kuehn CM, Mueller BA, Williams M. Maternal and birth characteristics in relation to childhood leukaemia. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006;20:312-22.
24. Abdul Rahman HI, Shah SA, Alias H, Ibrahim HM. A casecontrol study on the association between environmental factors and the occurrence of acute leukemia among children in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2008;9:649-52.
25. Meinert R, Schuz J, Kaletsch P, Kaatsch P, Michaells J. Leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in childhood and exposure to pesticides: results of a register-based case-control study in Germany. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:639-46.
26. Turner MC, Wigle DT, Krewski D. Residential pesticides and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:33-41.
27. Fear NT, Roman E, Reeves G, Pannett B. Childhood cancer and paternal employment in agriculture: the role of pesticides. Br J Cancer. 1998;77:825-9.
28. Wakeford R, Little MP, Kendall GM. Risk of childhood leukemia after low-level exposure to ionizing radiation. Expert Rev Hematol. 2010;3:251-4.
29. Shu XQ, Potter JD, Linet MS, Severson RK, Han D, Kersey JH, et al. Diagnostic X-rays and ultrasound exposure and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by immunophenotype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:177-85.
30. Hardell L, Dreifaldt AC. Breast-feeding duration and the risk of malignant diseases in childhood in Sweden. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:179-85.
31. Lancashire RJ, Sorahan T. Breastfeeding and childhood cancer risks: OSCC data. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:1035-7.
32. Guise JM, Austin D, Morris CD. Review of case-control studies related to breastfeeding and reduced risk of childhood leukemia. Pediatrics. 2005;116:724-31.
33. Chang JS, Selvin S, Metayer C, Crouse V, Golembesky A, Buffler PA. Parental smoking and the risk of childhood leukemia. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:1091-100.
34. Pang D, McNally R, Birch JM. Parental smoking and childhood cancer: results from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:373-81.
35. Infante-Rivard C, Krajinovic M, Labuda D, Sinnett D. Parental smoking, CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms and childhood leukemia (Quebec, Canada). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:547-53.
36. Sorahan T, Lancashire RJ, Hulten MA, Peck I, Stewart AM. Childhood cancer and parental use of tobacco: deaths from1953 to 1955. Br J Cancer. 1997;75:134-8.
37. Greaves M. Childhood leukemia. BMJ. 2002;324:283-7.
38. Westergaard T, Andersen PK, Pedersen JB, Olsen JH, Frisch M, Sorensen HT, et al. Birth characteristics, sibling patterns, and acute leukemia risk in childhood: a population-based cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89:939-47.
39. Von Behren J, Spector LG, Mueller BA, Carozza SE, Chow EJ, Fox EE, et al. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:2709-16.