Main Article Content
Background Asthma inflammation process and geohelminth
infection have the same immune response. Epidemiological studies
in developed countries show the increased asthma prevalence
and decreased geohelminth infection, while developing countries
usually have low asthma prevalence but high geohelminth
Objectives To determine asthma proportion in children with
geohelminth infection and relationship between asthma and
geohelminth prevalence of elementary school students in North
Method A cross sectional study was done in February 2009 at an
Elementary School in North Jakarta. Asthma was diagnosed using
ISAAC questionnaire which was answered by parents. We did
fecal analysis using ether formaline test to establish geohelminth
Results The proportion of students with asthma was 11.5%
(33 of 286 children). Most of them were male, aged 6-10 years
old, and well nourished. Geohelminth infection was found
in 71.9%of the students. Most of children with geohelminth
infection were male (55%), aged 6-10 years old (63%), and well
nourished (64%). Proportion of asthma in children with and
without geohelminth infection is 12.6% and 8.8%, respectively.
Geohelminth infection consisted of ascariasis (80%), trichuriasis
(39%), and ankylostomiasis (9%). There was no significant
relationship between asthma and geohelminth infection
(P=0.357), nor between asthma and ascariasis (P=0.202), asthma
and trichiuriasis (P=0.133).
Conclusions The occurrence of asthma in children with
geohelminth infection is 12.6% and there is no difference of
asthma incidence among children with or without geohelminth
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Indonesia. Pedoman nasional asma anak. l" Ed. Jakarta:
UKK Pulmonologi PP IDAI; 2004.
2. Palmer LJ, Celed6n JC, Weiss ST, Wang B, Fang Z, Xu X.
Ascaris lumbricoides infection is associated with increased risk
of childhood asthma and atopy in rural China. Am J Respir
Crit Care Med. 2002;165:1489-93.
3. Sharma G. Asthma. [cited 2008 Sept 9]. Available from:
4. Yazdanbakhsh M, Kremsner PG, Van Ree R. Allergy, parasites,
and the hygiene hypothesis. Science. 2002;296:490-4.
5. Cooper PJ, Chico ME, Bland M, Griffin GE, Nutman TB.
Allergic symptoms, atopy, and geohelminth infections
in rural area of Ecuador. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.
15. Asher MI, Keil U, Anderson HR, Beasley R, Crane J,
Martines F, et al. International study of asthma and allergies
in childhood (ISAAC): rationale and methods. Eur Respir
16. Yeatts K, Shy C, Sotir M, Music S, Herget C. Health
consequences for children with undiagnosed asthma-like
symptoms. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:540-4.
17. Praptiwi A. Pravalens asma anak sekolah menengah pertama
di Jakarta Pusat berdasarkan angket modifikasi ISAAC yang
diuji [thesis].Jakarta: Department of Child Health, Medical
School, University oflndonesia; 1996.
18. Hussain R, Poindexter RW, Ottesen EA. Control of allergic
reactivity in human filariasis predominant localization
of blocking antibody to the IgG4 subclass. J Immunol.
19. Hadidjaja P. Penuntun laboratorium parasitologi kedokteran.
Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FKUI, 1994; p.11-2.
20. Sjarif DR. Pediatric nutritional care. In: Pulungan AB,
Hendarto A, Hegar B, Oswari H, editors. Nutrition growth
development, continuing professional development IDAI
Jaya 2006. Jakarta: IDAI Jaya, 2006; p.3.
21. Cooper PJ, Chico ME, Bland M. Allergic symptoms, atopy,
and geohelminths infections in rural area of Ecuador. Am J
Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 ;168:313-7.
22. Cooper PJ, Barreto ML, Rodrigues LC. Human allergy
and geohelminth infections: a review of the literature and
proposed conceptual model to guide the investigation of
possible causal associations. Br Med Bull. 2007;3:1-16.
23 . Bee JL, Pritchard D, Britton J. Asthma and current intestinal
parasite infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am
J Respir Crit Care Med.2006;174:514-23.
24. Koning H, Baert MRM, Oranje AP, Savelkoul HFJ, Neijms
HJ. Development of immune factors, related to allergic
mechanism, in young children. In: Koning H, editors. T and
B cell activation in childhood allergy. Rotterdam: Department
oflmmunology, 2000; p.11-41.
25. Ball TM, Rodriguez JAC, Griffith KA, Holberg CJ, Martinez
FD, Wright AL. Sibling, day car attendance, and risk of
asthma and wheezing during childhood. N Eng J Med.
26. Strachan BP. Family size, infection and atopy: the first decade
of the "hygiene hypotesis". Thorax. 2000;55:S2-10.
27. Kay AB. Allergy and allergic diseases. N Engl J Med.
28. Pararajasingam CD, Sittampalam L, Damani P, Pattermore
PK, Holgate ST. Comparison of the prevalence of asthma
among Asian and European children in Southampton.
29. Haby MM, Peat JK, Marks GB, Woolcock AJ, Leeder SR.
Asthma in preschool children: prevalence and risk factors.
Thorax. 2000;56:5 89-95.
30. Anderson HR, PolonieckiJD, Phil D, Strachan DP, Beasley
R, Bj orksten B, et al. Immunization and symptoms of atopic
disease in children: results from the international study of
asthma and allergies in childhood. Am J Public Health.
6. Cooper PJ. Can intestinal helminth infecions (geohelminths)
affect the development and expression of asthma and allergic
disease? Chn Exp Immunol. 2002;128:398-404.
7. Perzanowski MS, Ng'ang'a LW, Carter MC, Odhiambo J,
Ngari P, VaughanJW, et al. Atopy, asthma, and antibodies to
Ascaris among rural and urban children in Kenya. J Pediatr.
8. Weiss ST. Parasites and asthma/ allergy: what is the
relationship?. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105:205-10.
9. Yazdanbakhsh M, Biggelaar A, Maizels RM. Th2 responses
without atopy: immunoregulation in chronic helminth
infections and reduced allergic disease. Trends Immunol.
10. Cooper PJ, Chico ME, Rodrigues LC, Ordonez M, Strachan
D, Griffin GE, et al. Reduced risk of atopy among school-age
children infected with geohelminth parasites in a rural area of
the tropics. J Allergy Chn Immunol. 2003;111:995-1000.
11. Ny an OA, Walraven GEL, Ban ya WAS, Milligan P,
Van der Sande M, Ceesay SM, et al. Atopy, intestinal
helminth infection and total serum IgE in rural and
urban adult Gambian communities. Chn Exp Allergy.
12. Scrivener S, Yemaneberhan H, Zebenigus M, Tilahun D,
Girma S, Ah S, et al. Independent effects of intestinal parasite
infection and domestic allergen exposure on risk of wheeze
in Ethiopia: a nested case-control study. Lancet. 2001;
13. Margono SS, Ismid IS, Abidin SAN. Infection and re-infection
rates of soil-transmitted helminths in school children, treated
with oxantel-pyrantel pamoate and mebendazole. Presented
at the 17th Association of Parasites Control Parasitologist's
meeting, 1995, Tokyo.
14. Sundaru H. Perbandingan prevalensi dan deraj at berat asma
antara daerah urban dan rural pada siswa sekolah usia 13-
14 tahun: Tinjauan dari segi riwayat asma dalam keluarga,
penyakit atopi yang menyertai, kadar alergen tungau debu
rumah, sensitisasi alergen, urutan kelahiran anak, dan
populasi udara. [dissertation]. Jakarta: Department of
Internal Medicine, Medical School, University oflndonesia;