Main Article Content
Urinary incontinence in children is a complex problem of varying causes. Most children brought to physician for evaluation of difficulties with urinary control will have single or diurnal enuresis, or will be experiencing urgency associated with functional or organic incontinence. To find out the magnitude of urinary incontinence problems in Child Health Department Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Jakarta, we retrospectively looked at medical report of such cases between the years of 1989-2001. During eleven years there were 20 cases, consisted of 10 males and 10 females, aged ranged between 3 months up to 16 years. Nineteen children showed significant bacteriuria defined as a urinary tract infection. Ten children were diagnosed as having neurogenic bladder, all had spinal lesions; 7 children had spinal dysraphyism while 3 others had osteolityc lesions in vertebrae due to malignancy. Non neurogenic bladder was defined in 6 children, while in other 4 children we defined that urinary incontinence was caused by anatomical abnormalities. Vesico-ureteral reflux in various degree were found in 9 children, while 11 out of 20 (55%) cases were experiencing chronic renal failure on their first visit. Although the annual incidence of urinary incontinence is low, these difficult cases causing many problems. Breakthrough infection was almost unpreventable and in most cases had progressed to renal failure. Many factors such as invasive procedures and prolonged treatment causing fear and frustration to the patients and their parents leading to poor compliance and lost to follow up. In summary we can conclude that urinary incontinence in children is a complex problem include medically, economically, and socially, not only for the patient and their parents, but also for medical profession.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
2. Mundy AR. The neuropathic bladder. In: Postlethwaite RJ, ed. Clinical paediatric nephrology 2nd eds, Oxford: Butterworth – Heinemann, 1994: 319-33
3. Van Gool JD. Disorders of micturition. In: Postlethwaite RJ ,ed. Clinical paediatric nephrology 2nded. Oxford: Butterworth – Heinemann, 1994.p. 59-74
4. Resnick MI, King LR. Urinary incontinence. In: Kelalis PP, King LR, Belman AB ,eds. Clinical paediatric urology vol. 1. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1976.p. 144-65
5. Mundy AR. The neuropathic bladder. In: In: Postlethwaite RJ ,ed. Clinical paediatric nephrology 2nded. Oxford: Butterworth – Heinemann, 1994.p. 319-33
6. Van Gool JD, Hjalmas K, Tamminen-Moleies T, Olbing H. Historical clue to the complex of dysfunctional voiding, urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux – the International Reflux Study in children. J Urol 1992, 148:1699-1702. cited from: Van Gool JD, Bloom DA, Buttler RJ, Djurhuus JC, Hjalmas K, de Jong TPUM, Kaplan WE, Peters CA, Podesta ML. Conservative management in children. In: Abram P, Khoury S, Wein A ,eds. Incontinence. First international consultation on incontinence, 1998, Monaco, June 28-July 1, 1998.p.489-549