Clinical features of children with retinoblastoma in Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, Indonesia

Main Article Content

Bidasari Lubis


We reviewed patents with retinoblastoma treated at the Department of Child Health, Adam Malik Hospital, Medan from January 1995 to December 1999. Clinical staging was based on Reese-Ellsworth classification (when the disease was limited to the eyeball) or on St Jude Children's Research Hospital (when the disease has extended beyond the eyeball). A total 19 retinoblastoma patients were available, from which 9 were males. Fifteen patients were less than 5 years old, and the average age at diagnosis was 3 years 8 months. In most patients the disease started at the age of less than 5 years, and they presented themselves with advanced stage as usually seen in developing countries. In nine patients the retinoblastoma affected the right eye, 8 affected the left eye, and in 2 patients the tumor was bilateral. The most common presenting symptom on admission was proptosis. Pathological confirmation was obtained in all patients. Bone marrow puncture was done in 15 patients; of whom 13 showed bone marrow metastasis. Since 1998 the standard treatment for patients with proptosis in stage III or IV of the disease was pre-operative chemotherapy followed by enucleation, radiation and chemotherapy.

Article Details

How to Cite
Lubis B. Clinical features of children with retinoblastoma in Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, Indonesia. PI [Internet]. 30Oct.2001 [cited 26Aug.2019];41(9-10):234-. Available from:
Received 2016-11-21
Accepted 2016-11-21
Published 2001-10-30


1. Donaldson SS, Egbert PR, Newsham I, Cavenee K. Retinoblastoma. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, editors. Principles and practice of pediatric oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia:
Lippincott; 1997. p. 699-715.
2. Pratt CB. Retinoblastoma. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Arvin AM, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 15th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1996. p. 1470-1.
3. Shields JA, Shields CL. Current management of retinoblastoma. Mayo Clin Proc 1994; 69:50-6.
4. Rudolph AM, Hoffman JIE, Rudolph CD, editors. Rudolph's Pediatrics, 20th ed. San Fransisco: Prentice Hall Int; 1996; 2:105.
5. Jones PG, Campbell PE. Tumors of infancy and childhood. 1st ed. Melbourne: Blackwell; 1976. p. 423-34.
6. O'Keefe M. Retinoblastoma. In: Puri P, editor. Neonatal tumours. 1st ed. Berlin: Springer; 1996. p. 89-94.
7. Jones PG. Clinical paediatric surgery. Diagnosis and management. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Blackwell; 1976. p. 175-6.
8. Nasution R, Sutjipto A. Childhood retinoblastoma. Paediatr Indones 1991; 31:117-22.
9. Voute P. Childhood cancer. Course & Workshop. The 2nd basic sciences in oncology and the 4th Paediatric Oncology, Jakarta, April 12-15th, 2000.